Digital marketing is a way to promote brands and products online and through other digital channels. Most businesses have a specific audience they are trying to reach, and fundamentals of digital marketing aims to help businesses reach these target consumers through the internet and other digital avenues.
What are the Fundamentals of Digital Marketing?
The first and most fundamentals of digital marketingis to understand the phrase itself.
Marketing (and its subset- advertising) is persuasion and influence. Its purpose is to present solutions to prospects for the problems they have. It requires knowing who your prospect is and what message they need to hear to move to action.
The method to deliver this message to the right prospects is called media. Media has existed since the beginning of time in one form or another. All media is merely a delivery tool to get a compelling message to an ideal client. Media has evolved over time. Two hundred years ago, smoke signals were media. The telegraph and the telephone were invented- they are media. Newspapers, radio, TV, and even skywriting are all merely media.
“Digital” is a term that applies to all media that is online. It is an ‘encompassing’ term, meaning there are hundreds, even thousands of media that fall under the term digital.
So Digital Marketing is marketing first. It is persuasion and influence. The phrase digital is added to segregate it as those media which are online. Within that phrase, there are hundreds of media. Like Facebook, Instagram, websites, Adwords, etc. Every one of the media has unique requirements to work effectively.
If you know marketing, mastering a media is simple. But in most cases, marketing people hire someone to do the ‘mechanical’ work of mastering the media. Why? Because it’s cheaper to hire someone. Marketing is where the money is, not in the media.
If you are interested in Digital Marketing, you must understand marketing first. Then, if you decide to specialize in a specific media, like websites, you can sub-specialize in SEO if that sounds like fun.
Keep researching before you make a choice. If you learn marketing first, you will have a lifelong adventure and success!
Traditional vs Digital Marketing
The fundamentals of Digital Marketing are different from Traditional Marketing. A study says that 70% of purchase decisions begin with a search. So to survive in new age marketing one have to use modern technologies to funnel leads from websites & social media platforms.
TheFundamentals of Digital marketing to hack NEW AGE marketing are
The first thing you need to consider when doing digital marketing is search engine optimization. The content you publish online should be optimized so that search engines will index your content and serve it to the most The key to SEO is researching effective keywords for trying to attract and then developing content focused on those keywords.
Now you have you developed great, SEO friendly content. Proceed to Content Marketing. Content marketing refers to a strategic approach to targeting specific audiences of people online with consistent, relevant, and engaging content. There are lots of different kinds of media available online you can use to market an organization, from blogs to email to website landing pages.
Content strategy refers overall plan for developing and publishing content it’s different from content marketing in that it involves planning for all the content marketing Developing an effective content strategy means managing all of your content so that when you do your marketing, you have the most assets available.
Paid Online Advertising
There’s a paid side to digital marketing that you should at least be aware of Platforms like Google AdWords and Facebook Ads allow you to reach large groups of people very quickly for very competitive rates, It’s important to assess whether a paid strategy might benefit your overall marketing goals.
Social media is fast becoming the best venue for fueling online Million of people use social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn every day to discuss their favorite products services, causes, and preferred local vendors. If you want to build brand awareness, social media can be a great venue for cultivating, monitoring.
The Scope of Digital Marketing in 2020 & Beyond in India
The growth of India’s digital advertising industry is at 33.5%.
The value of the digital marketing industry will exceed the INR 225 billion by 2020.
By 2020, in India digital Industry will produce more than 20 lakh jobs.
In the financial year, 2016–17 digital marketing in India has reached the $1 billion mark.
Digital advertising is likely to grow at an average of 14% annually.
Digital media is expected to grow up to 24% by 2020 which now stands around 12% of the overall ad share.
The largest share of the total digital advertisement spends in the search and display commands.
Customers of the new generation check their smart devices every 9.6 minutes.
There are 220 Million users who are accessing digital services through their smartphones.
In December 2016, the number of internet users in India was at 432 million.
By 2017 the number of mobile internet users in India has reached 420 million.
The number of mobile internet users by 2021 in India is estimated to reach 829 million.
The number of users in India is growing at a very fast pace at 38%.
Digital Marketing Certifications
There is no such certification in digital marketing by any institute which lays a red carpet door for you. There are about more than 1000’s of me too and me only certificate courses being offered and self-proclaimed to be the best. The only certifications which will hold you in good stead and might open doors for your are Google Digital MarketingCertification for Adwords, analytics. Hubspot certification would be good for the increasing demand for inbound marketers. There could be few more but the point is people will hire those with expertise on platforms and not write to any certificate. The key to being in digital marketing is your knowledge.
Digital Marketing Certificateis not a requirement today, but studies showthat the digitalmarket certifications decrease your odds of unemployment and can directly impact your salary.
As someone who was just recently on the job hunt in the marketing field, a lot of open job opportunities wanted candidates with knowledge of Google Analytics, SEO, PPC, Facebook Ads, Google Adwords, and Content marketing experience.
More and more jobs in marketing are requiring you have some form of analytics knowledge.
The Best Digital Marketing Courses available online
Google Digital Marketing Courses (Free with Certification)
Reliablesoft Academy (Paid with Certification)
SEMRUSH Academy (Free with Certification)
ClickMinded Digital Marketing Course (Free and Paid with Certification)
HubSpot Online Marketing Courses (Free with Certification)
Udemy Digital Marketing
A few of the better institutes offeringDigital Marketing Course Training in India are given below.
Delhi based digital marketing institute founded in 2014 has trained 7500+ individuals, grown to 16 centers in 10 cities in just 3 years, and has become one of the biggest digital marketing training providers in India.
A Bangalore based digital marketing training provider and offers certification programs in more than 300 courses. The Digital Marketing program is named as “Advanced Online Marketing Certification Program”.
A premium Institute established in 2009. As of now, they have fruitfully completed over 500 training programs. The institute is exclusively into digital marketing and provides only online training to aspirants.
This 6.5 Month intensive program is designed to train students in key areas of Digital Marketing & Communication and prepare them for marketing challenges in a digital world. The program exposes you to a combination of MICA’s top Faculty in Marketing Strategy, Digital, and Communications as well as top marketing professionals and their respective experiences. Through concepts, industry projects, tools, and case studies we will equip you with the skills needed to have a strong edge in the job market.
A Bangalore based full-fledged digital media training center.
The institute offers a one-month Executive Programme course in SEO, PPC advertising, SMM & Web Analytics, a six-month specialized Program in Digital Marketing (EPDM), and a one-year Graduate Program for learners to jumpstart their digital marketing career.
As per my research, the average fee for a complete Digital Marketing course is around Rs. 45000/-. The premium Institutes charge about Rs 1 lac to 1.5 lac in about 6 months to 1 year.
An average digital marketing institute charges around Rs 15,000 to Rs 45,000 for 3 months duration which may include Internship also.
Digital marketing is a booming industry. Till 2020 there were more than 4.33 billion internet users across the world that is 57% of the total world population. The world is rapidly shifting from traditional to the digital domain. Presently digital marketing has become an essential element of their overall marketing approach.
Digital Marketing is a highly competitive field to get into. There are many jobs available in this Umbrella term” Digital Marketing” and you have to choose among them. This Umbrella term includes jobs like web design, web development, SEO, SEM, content marketing, social media marketing,and so on. There are plenty of freelance Digital Marketing jobs in case you want to be your own boss. Getting into this field and becoming successful requires you to plan meticulously and proficiently in more than one digital marketing area.
Because you have to provide solutions to your clients in more than a few digital marketing strategies. Try the different aspects of digital marketing and then you gradually build your portfolio as Digital Marketer.
What is freelance digital marketing?
A person who is having a digital marketing skill can be a full-time Digital Marketer in companies as well as a self-employed Freelancer.
A Freelance Digital Marketer is a term generally used for a person who is the self-employed person who offers services to multiple businesses. The type of work freelancers varies from person to person specialization such as social media marketing, content writer, copywriter, graphic designer, and more. One has to build his Freelance digital marketing Portfolio.
With freelance digital marketing, you’re basically helping companies promote their products and services online. Your job is to reach out to your client’s target audience, drive them to your marketing skill and be a full-time Digital Marketer in companies as well as a freelance digital market consultant, freelance digital market specialist,orfreelance digital market strategist.
Why you should become a Freelance Digital Marketer?
Today Digital Marketing is a booming career option.With striking features like cost-effectiveness, instant response, flexibility, convenience, effectiveness. Today ‘Digital Marketing’ and ‘Marketing’ both are becoming synonymous.
The biggest for the future of Digital Marketing is the integration of Social Networks. To get into Digital Marketing, you need to identify your interests and strengths in order to make the right decision to specialize in a particular area of Digital Marketing.
While all other industries are struggling with a growth rate of 5 to 10 %, the digital media industry is booming with a 40% growth rate.
The most remarkable point is that this growth rate is not going to be stagnant in the coming years. Every day a new online start-up born and they need marketing.
There are manyfreelance digital marketing sites providing freelance digital marketing jobs on the internet that can help you get your firstdigital marketingfreelance project very quickly. Like:
However, there are many things that you need to keep in mind while looking for freelance digital marketing jobs or any field.
Benefits of a Freelancer
You don’t need to work on fixed hours, 9 am to5 pm; you can set your own hours. great exposure.
2)You can pick your own choice of brands or clients.
3)You become an independent marketer and can set your own price.
4)You can work for multiple clients at the same time.
That said, there are several cons of freelance digital marketing as well. These include:
Stiff Competition: Assuming you’re going to reach out to clients on freelancer companies to drive sales and track their ROI more effectively than other forms of marketing, so don’t worry; your job is safe.
You have no fixed income: You might earn $5,000 one month, and then $500 the next. As you build your client base and get more retainer jobs, the situation should improve, but you still won’t get as much stability as you would with a regular 9 to 5 job.
No one’s going to sponsor you to upgrade your skills: Things change really quickly in the digital world, and you can’t rely on your company to send you for courses or workshops that will help you upgrade your skills. Luckily, there are a ton of free online resources that you can make use of.
Getting started with freelance digital marketing Jobs
Ready to get started with your freelance career? This 6-step guide will help you do just that!
Step 1: Manage your expectations
One misconception that many people have about digital freelance marketing (and about freelancing in general) is that it’s a stress-free job. Unfortunately, that’s far from the case. While you don’t have a boss or manager breathing down your neck, you’ll still have to answer to your clients.
What happens when you commit yourself to too many things at once, then realize that you can’t hit your deadlines? Or if your client suddenly changes the project scope, wasting days of your time? Your work will never be stress-free, and you’ll just have to learn how to deal with these unexpected scenarios that crop up.
Step 2: Identify your talents and skillsets
In step two of the process, you’ll have to sit down and make a list of the skills you have. Do you know how to run a PPC campaign on Google AdWords? You must have experience managing Facebook pages? You must know how to create an automated email campaign on MailChimp?
Next, think about other talents and soft skills that you possess. Are you a great storyteller? Do you like problem-solving and identifying strategies? Do you have expertise in any particular industry?
Step 3: Find and Narrowing Down your Niche
Once you’ve identified your talents and skillsets, the next step is to choose your niche. Instead of sticking with a general niche, narrow down your niche, and choose something more specific.
On top of defining your niche in terms of your target audience, do also think about the type of services you want to offer.
Step 4: Look for clients
There are a few ways in which you can market your services and look for clients; we’ll go through each method in detail in this section.
First, what most freelancers do is rely on platforms such as Upwork. Basically, this is where companies go to outsource certain tasks to freelancers. Once you register for an account, you’ll be able to view the job ads posted by companies, send in proposals, and hopefully land yourself your first digital freelance marketing assignment.
Step 5: How to Charge
You must be aware of theDigital Marketing Freelancer ratesin India.
1) Hourly Rate: Once you have a general idea of how much you want to charge, calculate your hourly rate based on your full-time income, and take that into consideration as well.
2) Fixed Price Per Project: Your client pays you a fixed price per project completed.
3) Retainer Price Option: Your client pays you a fixed price per month, and they’ll reach out to you with various tasks over the course of the month.
Useful Tools and Resources
As a freelance digital marketer, there are plenty of tools and resources that you can equip yourself with like Hotjar to help you analyze and optimize your website, SumoMe to help you grow your email list, Wix to create your website, Bonsai to generate freelance contracts and Harvest to generate client invoices. Some of these will help you reduce the time you spend on administrative tasks, and others will help you tackle certain aspects of your marketing projects.
A final word on getting started with freelance digital marketing Jobs
Well, there are thousands of freelance digital marketers out there, and it’s not easy to stand out in this crowded space. As long as you bring something to the table, and you’re willing to learn new skills, there’s nothing stopping you from doubling or even tripling your income, simply by taking on freelance digital marketing work.
Remember the key is to offer your clients something that’s truly valuable to them and to persevere instead of quitting early in the game.
The Virtual Office idea came from a combination of technological innovation and the Information age. The concept of virtual office services has roots in the Industrial age where parallels to current work styles, specifically working from home, have been drawn.
The virtual office concept is an evolution of the traditional executive suite. As an executive suite lease became increasingly impractical for certain types and stages of business, it naturally opened the door to a virtual office concept.
A virtual office can be defined as a workplace or workspace which geographically separate from the main office but is linked through the use of telecommunications technology.
What is the Virtual Office Services
Virtual office servicesenable employees and business owners to work remotely by providing a range of business functions accessible through the internet. It also enables organizations to create and maintain a presence in a desirable location without the need to pay rent for an actual space.
Virtual office infrastructure may include a variety of physical locations and services, as well as digital services. The infrastructure is shared across individuals and entities allowing resources to be utilized more efficiently. This allows users the flexibility of only renting or using the services they need.
A business address
Virtual Mailing address(receive, pick up and/or forwarding)
Desk space and private offices
Printing and related services such as copying, binding, faxing, scanning, laminating, and shredding.
Receptionist services and answering services
Registered agent corporate services
A phone number
Online phone system (VoIP)
Website domains and email
Instant Message, chat and other web-based RTC platforms
Video conferencing, including webinar-hosting or other screen-sharing platforms
Online digital storage
Cloud-based applications (e.g. Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides or Office 365)
On-demand video talking (ZOOM video, Google Meet, Microsoft Teams, etc.
Why Do We Need Virtual Office Services
There are a variety of reasons, why we need Virtual Office services. Here are a few of the advantages and disadvantages of virtual offices.
Virtual offices allow businesses to significantly lower their overhead and allocate funds to other areas that may require stimulation. With prices well below those of brick-and-mortar offices (as is evident from the experiences of many entrepreneurs, thousands of dollars can be easily saved by replacing regular office space with virtual offices). They represent the ideal option for companies that are trying to make their presence felt in quite a few places at the same time.
Requires Less Management
The second greatest advantage of virtual offices is the lack of management needed. Regular offices have to be managed on a regular basis; a virtual office needs little management, simply the right tools for everyone involved. Employees also have greater flexibility to develop their workflow and productivity habits, which can lead to increased creativity and innovation.
A white paper published by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology found that in a survey of telecommuters, participants said that working remotely significantly increased job satisfaction and relationships with supervisors, and significantly lowered work-related stress.
This is because, in the Virtual office Management system, the employees have the freedom to manage themselves, which can have major benefits if you have the right team.
Less opportunity for office conflict
Even the most amicable offices have their issues. It’s difficult to gather a group of people with differing personalities and not experience some conflicts or disagreements. Virtual offices allow companies to continue to be productive without creating an environment where personalities may clash. And communication doesn’t suffer – teams can always be brought together via messaging or video conferencing apps when a question or issue comes up that requires communication with the whole team.
However, there are few disadvantages of Virtual office spaces too.
Lack of Physical Space
The lack of physical space is naturally the most important one, and it is something that business owners have to include in their business plan. If space is something that will be needed later on, virtual offices might not be worth the upfront cost savings.
Potential for decreased productivity
Although a virtual office may boost worker productivity, there is the potential for slacking. Many employees need the structure and discipline that a physical office provides to do their best work. Communications may suffer if team members are emailing each other back and forth rather than having a direct conversation.
Here is what some of the Best Virtual Office companies do to offer the best services to their clients.
Set up a Virtual Business office.
After booking your virtual office address, you now have to focus on getting the most out of your virtual workspace. Sure, you’ve saved considerable costs by going for a virtual office suite than leasing out a commercial office space but that doesn’t mean you can afford to ignore opportunities to double your investment.
To do that you need to:
Take advantage of the in-house mail services: Have all of your mail sent to your virtual location.
Use professional answering services after getting a local number. Deploy telephone services so you can focus on other important business matters. Plus, having someone else answer the phone looks good for your business, too.
Maximize the features and amenities that come with your virtual office: Office equipment doesn’t come cheap. If you choose the right virtual office, you don’t have to worry about buying a printer, copier, the best Internet plan, and so on. These features already come with your virtual office rental fee.
Attend networking events: We like to believe that no business is an island. This is why you must host monthly networking events that connect entrepreneurs and experts (e.g. accountants and lawyers) with each other.
Set meetings with clients or investors without paying for conference room rentals: If you’re still paying for conference room rentals, you need to switch to a virtual office location that has fully furnished meeting rooms that you can use for free.
If your work involves traveling to client locations or other places away from your home base, you should probably consider buying a laptop computer rather than a desktop system.
If always working from the keyboard and small screen of a laptop doesn’t appeal to you, there are other solutions. To make using your laptop more efficient in your home office, a docking station can be set up that you can simply plug your laptop into.
Docking stations make it easy to have a standard monitor, keyboard and mouse, printer, fax machine, scanner, and other peripherals always hooked and ready to use. By plugging your laptop into the docking station, you are able to use it just like a standard desktop system, and you won’t have to worry about transferring or syncing files to another computer.
Virtual Office Software
On the software side of things, there are several options for you to consider. If you work independently and do not have others that you need to coordinate with then fulfilling your software requirements is not so difficult. Here are some categories of software you may need along with links to some of the most popular packages:
An e-mail program — You can use the e-mail program that your ISP provides, but programs such as Microsoft Outlook Express or Eudora will give you good e-mail functions and you won’t have to change programs if you change ISPs.
A word processor — Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, and Lotus Word Pro
Spreadsheet and database programs — Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, Intuit QuickBase
Presentation software — Microsoft Powerpoint or Astound.
Virus protection software — McAfee, or Norton Antivirus
A utility program for computer maintenance — Symantec Norton Utilities, McAfee, or TechTool Pro.
Portable Document Format (PDF) reader software – Adobe Acrobat Reader– This software is very helpful for reviewing formatted documents such as brochure layouts from outside designers or co-workers.
Graphics and/or image editing tool — CorelDraw, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia Freehand, Deneba Canvas(Image editing software may also accompany your scanner.)
Internet browsers — Netscape Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer
Group software needs
If you are working with others, and have the need to coordinate scheduling, access central files, maintain a contact manager, meet in chat rooms, etc. then you have more of a challenge. There are programs available, such as Lotus Notes or Novell Group-wise, that provide these types of features as a software solution. These solutions may require quite a good bit of computer knowledge and an IT person to manage the system.
The use of a virtual office 100% depends on your business type and so you should be sure to evaluate the pros and cons specific to you and your needs as a business.
So if you have decided that you need to be in the hustle and bustle, near the action in the heart of a city then you can leverage a combination of in-situation team and virtual assistants working around the world.
Set up Virtual Teams
A Virtual Team is a group of individuals who works across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technology.
Members of virtual teams communicate electronically and may never meet face to face.
Virtual teams are made possible by the proliferation of the internet and world wide web technology that has significantly increased the scope of off-site communication.
Virtual teams allow companies to procure the best talent without geographical restrictions.
The advantages and disadvantages of virtual teams are given below:
Increased Productivity: 24 hours of work opportunity.
Extended Market Opportunity: With work teams located in different parts of the world, organizations are able to establish their presence with customers worldwide.
Knowledge Transfer: Utilizing people with different types of knowledge spread out across the globe can be very beneficial to ant organization.
Communication deficiency: Virtual Team suffers from a lack of efficiency in communication, partly due to constraints in virtual communication mediums.
Poor leadership & management: Poor leadership can result in the failure of any team, whether virtual or not. However, it becomes more prominent in virtual teams.
Incompetent team members: Virtual teams should consist of competent and experienced team members due to the different factors which can overtly affect the timing and completion date of a project.
There are so many combinations that might work for you, and each business is unique.
Here are your options in short:
Find more remote office space and use this as your business address. This might work for companies that are logistically and operationally heavy and require warehousing and access to transport links.
Find more remote office space and use a Virtual Office. This is likely to suit service professionals who want to live in the countryside or near the sea . They can easily commute for relevant meetings.
Rent the desk space in your city that you need, and work with remote Virtual Assistants from around the world. This will bring your staffing costs down but still get your admin done. This is likely the solution for young businesses and startups.
Rent a private office, install a slide and a trampoline, employ a full in-house team, and have full team collaboration. This is really only the option for successful startups and well-established businesses with solid cash flow tor funding.
Being a diverse country, the United States is the safest place for students particularly for Students from India and there is no need for any reason for racism. So in that sense, the US is a safe country for Indian Students who want to study in the USA.
If you have decided to study in the US, your choice of the country requires no validation as the US is considered the best study abroad destination.
Although the reasons to consider a country may differ widely among students, there are few standout features that make everyplace different from others.
The US government claims that the US that Immigrants from India are better educated, more likely to have strong English language skills, arrive on employment-based visas, and are less likely to live below the poverty line than the overall immigrant population.
Many Indian works in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math, (STEM) fields.
Why Study in the USA
In the 20th and 21st centuries the US has become the magnet for hundreds of thousands of bright ambitious students around the world.
By 2019, 1,095,299 students from almost all countries around the world studied at higher education in the US. In the same period 202,014 students from India, which is 20% of all international students, studied on American campuses.
The US is preferred for Indian students because US higher education institutions offer Academic Excellence, Cutting edge technology, Extensive support services for international students, generous funding opportunities, and a wide variety of education options, flexible curricula, and hands-on training.
USIEF does not endorse or rank any college or university but students in pursuit of a US degree. Specialized seminars and workshops on admission, application procedures and strategies, education fairs, and pre-departure orientation programs are held all year-round.
USIEF advising centers are located in New Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Kolkata, and Mumbai.
USIEF centers administer the following tests at their respective locations. :
New Delhi: SAT1, SAT11, ACT, PSAT, and AP exams.
Mumbai: PSAT and AP exams.
Kolkata: SAT1, SAT11, AP exams, and PSAT.
Chennai: SAT1, SAT11, and PSAT.
Hyderabad: PSAT test.
More details of these tests can be obtained from the centers via email or phone.
USIEF offers a fee-based memberships plan to individual students. Members have access to our library resource books, test preparation materials, CD-ROMS, Student Profile, Individual Counselling, and special, seminars, and workshops. Information about any accredited US University and college can also be checked.
The Ed USA toll-free hotline 1-800-103-1231 is available between 2 pm and 5 pm (Monday to Friday).
How can we help you?
Read our websites for extensive information and graduate studies.
Visit our offices (Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai) to meet our staff.
Use our libraries and computers to explore opportunities for study in the USA and prepare for standardized tests.
Receive advice over the phone about US study from our Education USA advising help desk 1-800-103-1231.
Attend specialized presentations on a variety of topics and meet US university representatives.
Receive weekly emails about scholarship opportunities.
Become a fan of our Facebook pages.
Get your original mark sheets and certificates attested for a reasonable fee.
Receive unbiased advice about the US visa process from a US embassy consular officer at our Viva counseling session.
In order to undertake undergraduate studies in the US, international students need to have completed 12 years of schooling.
For graduate studies, international students need to have the equivalent of a US Bachelor’s degree. In other words, 16 years of school. education before graduation.
Applying to a US graduate school is a time consuming, but fair and rewarding process. A few general points should be emphasized as you set started in the process.
# Allow yourself enough time for this process. Taking standardized tests, organizing letters of recommendation, getting mark sheets and credentials and writing ( and rewriting) application essays is a time-consuming process. Allow between 12-15 months for this entire process.
# Do not underestimate the importance of essays. Admission officers take the application essays and statements of purpose (SOP) very seriously. Working hard to craft, proofreading, and edit these essays many times over is an effort that will pay rich rich dividends.
# Shortlist universities Universities with a larger plan in mind. Ensure that you apply to a range of institutions that your academic reach. Also, you may want to keep in mind factors such as the university proximity to relatives or friends, geographical location, scholarships, climate, and the cost of living, as factors such as entertainment, rural or urban setting, and so forth.
Also, there is more information and advice on our website regarding US Universities and Scholarships. Students are also advised to download our handout on graduate study.
# 12 to 18 months before enrolment.
It is prior to the year in which you hope to enroll.
begin researching programs and financial aid and required standardized tests.
request admissions and financial aid applications
register for tests ( TOEFL, IELTS, GRE, or GMAT)
# September – December
Request official transcripts and letters of recommendation.
submit completed applications.
take standardized tests.
# January – April
Verify that you have met the deadline.
# April – June
Receive admission decisions.
which school to attend and complete the necessary paperwork.
organize finances and finalize arrangements for housing and medical insurance
# June – August
Apply to US embassy or consulate for visa and complete SEVIS I -901 form upon receipt for I-20 form.
make travel arrangements.
contact the international student office to detail arrival plans and confirm orientation for new students or universities.
Talk to an Education USA advisor about all the opportunities available to you.
Please note that applications for MBA’s programs have three rounds:
First Round – October – November),
Second Round: December – February),
Third Round: March – April
We recommend students apply no later than Round two.
The main requirements for admissions to educational to institutions in the US are :
Strong Academic background.
Demonstrated command of the English language.
For many programs, scores on one or more standardized admissions tests such as Graduate research Examination (GRE) general test or a Demonstration of proficiency in field GRE general test, or sometimes both.
Adequate financial resources.
These standardized tests provide US universities with an objective standard by which they can assess your academic potential.
The most common tests are the following :
The SAT has three sections — mathematics, writing, and critical reading
Mathematics: Topics include functions, data analysis, and other college maths topics.
Critical Reading: Sentence completion and reading comprehension questions.
Writing: Reasoning essay, improve sentences and paragraphs.
Duration: Three hours and 45 minutes.
Cost: $99 Maximum Score: 2400 and an essay score of 12 (Ivy League universities want a score of 2000 and above)
universities want a score of 2000 and above)
SAT Subject Tests
The SAT subject tests are subject-specific (chemistry, physics, literature, and so on)
Duration: Generally one-hour for each Subject Test
Cost: $83 for one test or $103 for three tests at the same time (not including any language tests).
Maximum Score: 800 in each Subject Test (Ivy League universities want a score of 750 and above in each SAT Subject Tests).
GRE General Tests
If you are planning to apply to a Master’s or Ph.D. program in a field other than medicine or law, you will most likely be required to take the GRE general test. It has three sections:
The new GRE has a maximum time limit of 190 minutes.
The scoring is 130-170 in one point increment.
GRE Subject Test.
Some graduate programs may require GRE subject tests. Check with the academic department or graduate admissions office of the university to which you are applying to confirm. Subject tests are offered in the following fields of study.
Biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology.
literature in English.
Most students applying for an MBA program will be required to take the GMAT.
The GMAT will have a 30-minute Integrated Reasoning Section with new question types.
The Integrated Reasoning Section will replace one of the two essays of the current Analytical Writing Section (each essay of the Analytical Writing Section is currently 30 minutes). Also, the scoring of the GMAT will stay the same — 200 to 800 points. Students will have a separate score for the Analytical Writing essay and the Integrated Reasoning Section. Top business schools want scores of 700 and above.
For the three-year Doctorate degree in American law.
The MCAT is required for entrance into most MD graduate programs in medicine.
DAT is required for most doctoral programs in Dentistry.
A graduate of Indian Medical schools who wish to conduct a post-degree residency in the USA is required to take the Multi-Port USMLE test.
English Proficiency Tests
International students whose native is not English may be required to take a test to establish their English language proficiency. Students should visit the individual college websites for information. Options include :
TOEFL – Test of English language as a foreign language.
IELTS: – International English language testing system.
PTE academic— Pearson test of English academic.
If you are unsure which tests you need to take, consult official university websites for more information. Pay close attention to the university and application deadline and plan your exam schedule accordingly.
Shortlisting graduate or Ph.D. programs can be a challenge because of the enormous variety of available programs.
Researching the 4000 or more US higher education institutions that offer various undergraduate, masters, and Ph.D. programs is not a simple task. We suggest narrowing your search using the following tips.
The key to short-listing universities is to begin by setting your own priorities. After you set your priorities, use a university search engine or print guide to narrow down your search to 10-20 universities meeting your criteria. The most up to date information about a university will be on its official website.
Thoroughly review university websites using these steps.
Begin with the international admissions page for information on the university’s selection criteria, the application process, and deadlines.
Read the financial aid page for information on costs and university-funded scholarships, fellowships, or assistantships.
Research external funding opportunities from private foundations, businesses, and other organizations.
Review the department website to learn about the academic environment and the intellectual resources of the faculty and the facilities you can expect to access the department.
Read the student services and international student pages for information about campus life and activities. Each university tends to have a unique “campus culture.”
Consulting alumni of American universities and current university students, conducting campus visits, and speaking to EducationUSA advisers at USIEF can also help you narrow your search and chose 4-6 universities to which you will apply.
After deciding the type of degree you would like to complete, begin by researching the academic fit and suitability of departments. Make this your top consideration. Then, take into account location and campus setting/size, the competitiveness of admission, cost of attendance and funding, and accreditation and reputation.
Your academic fit within the department should be your top consideration, before location, the brand name of the university, and pretty much anything you can think of! It is essential to research the department to find the right ‘academic home’ for you.
Applying to US Universities
Students need to submit separate applications to each U.S. graduate program that they want to apply to. Students can apply to as many universities as they wish, though for time and cost purposes we recommend you choose 4-6 universities. Each university will set its own deadlines, application requirements, etc. Fortunately, most applications will follow a similar format, and you’ll be able to re-use or adapt the materials you prepare for each application.
Most applications will include:
Standardized test score.
Transcripts: You need to submit official records of your academic work called transcripts. Besides mark sheets, foreign students should ask their school to provide a list of the subjects they studied each year for their last four years of study along with the duration of the program. Detailed break-ups, if available, indicating the number of times the class met per semester should be included with the examination results. Ensure that official copies are procured from your academic institution in a sealed envelope. USIEF also attests academic documents for a fee.
Declaration and Certification of Finances: Most colleges and universities include a Declaration and Certification of Finances form in their application packets. This must be signed by your parents, or whoever is meeting your college/ university expenses, and must be supported by a bank letter signed by the manager.
The statement of Purposes: Personal statements which are also called The statements of purpose or SoP. The statement of purpose essay is required by many graduate institutions, which is a narrative about your interests and academic goals. This may be a page or two long, describing your background and achievements and future plans. Some colleges or universities specify essay topics.
Separate research statement: Sometimes called describing your research interests and plans.
Two to Three Recommendation letters: Institutions generally ask for two or three letters of recommendation. A member of the faculty of, head of the department, a project as your supervisors at work, may write these.
Send supplementary materials as appropriate.
Find the right match by selecting a university or a college well suited to your needs and work hard on your applications.
When you receive a letter of acceptance, you are required to confirm your admission. A simple email confirming your acceptance should be fine. Some schools may require a deposit to confirm your admission.
The International Student Office will later send you the I-20 (Certificate of Eligibility), which is required for you to apply for an F-1 visa at a U.S. Embassy.
Paying for the US Education
Generally speaking, there are four types of funding for study in the U.S.:
Funding from U.S. universities
Scholarships from external funding bodies.
Here are the course fees in the US for undergraduate and postgraduate courses.
Course Average Fees
Engineering $12,000 – $25,000
Sciences $12,000 – $22,000
Arts $12,000 – $20,000
Business Management $12,000 – $25,000
Course Average Fees
Engineering $15,000 – $28,000
Sciences $12,000 – $25,000
Arts $12,000 – $23,000
Business Management $15,000 – $40,000
After assessing your personal and family savings, your best resource for funding will likely be from a U.S. university. The good news is that two-thirds of students in the sciences and engineering and half of the students in the humanities report receiving significant funding from their university.
There are two main types of university-based funding:
Usually both types of funding are renewable from year-to-year if the student maintains specified academic standards (such as a minimum 3.0 GPA).
Fellowships can be thought of as an outright grant, while assistantships are funding offered in return for services provided to the university – either teaching, research, lab supervision, or working in a campus office for approximately 15-20 hours per week.
Assistantships are not only an excellent way to fund your studies but can also be a way to network and gain valuable experience in your field.
Funding from External Bodies
External funding bodies may include a wide range of professional, charitable, or government organizations with a vested interest in supporting further education. Generally, external funding bodies award scholarships or financial awards that do not have to be repaid and do not come with any work requirements as you will see with university assistantships.
Funding for U.S. Study
International Education Financial Aid
Fulbright-Nehru Master’s Fellowships for Leadership Development
International Fulbright Science and Technology Award for Outstanding Foreign Students
East-West Center Graduate Degree Fellowship Programs
Fulbright-Nehru Doctoral and Professional Research Fellowships
American Association of University Women
The process for Indian citizens to apply for a visa to study in the U.S. is straightforward, if the necessary steps are completed in a timely and accurate manner. The U.S. Department of State and U.S. Embassy offices welcome visa applications from international students.
Types of Visas for U.S. Study
The two most common visas for U.S. study are the F-1 Student Visa and J-1 Exchange Visitor Visa. Please note you will not have to choose which visa to apply for. Your university or sponsoring organization will determine your visa type.
F-1 Student Visa: Most students pursuing full-time study at an educational institution recognized by the U.S. government will enter the U.S. on an F-1 Student visa.
Spouses or children accompanying F-1 visa recipients will travel on an F-2 visa. Please note that spouses are not able to work but may accompany and/or apply for their own visa to the U.S. to work or study.
J-1 Exchange Visitor Visa: The J-1 Exchange Visitor Visa is for students, visiting scholars, or lecturers pursuing an exchange program. For example, Fulbright scholars and many students on short-term study abroad programs from Indian universities will travel to the U.S. on a J-1 visa. Spouses or children accompanying J-1 visa recipients will travel on a J-2 visa. Please note that spouses are able to work when permission is obtained in advance.
General Steps to Apply for an F-1 or J-1 Visa
~ Read the information provided by the U.S. Embassy on F-1 Student Visas and J-1 Exchange Visitor Visas
~ Once you accept an offer of admission, your university or sponsor will require proof of funds (bank statements, scholarship offer letters, loan documentation, etc.) for the first year of study. This figure will be based on the cost of attendance listed on the financial aid webpage of the university. Please note you may use any combination of personal/family savings, scholarships, and loans to fund your studies.
~ The university or sponsor will then send you the relevant certificate of eligibility form, the I-20 (F-1) or DS-2019 (J-1).
~ After receiving your I-20, complete the SEVIS I-901 form to register with the international visitor database. You will also need to pay the SEVIS fee ($350 for F visa and $220 for J visa) online using a debit or credit card.
~ After paying for your SEVIS fee, book an appointment for a visa interview at the U.S. Embassy within your jurisdiction.
~ After paying for your SEVIS fee, book an appointment for a visa interview at the U.S. Embassy within your jurisdiction. You should also save often, as the system times out after several minutes. Additionally, be sure to include all educational institutions you have attended since age 11 in the Education section, as well as your full criminal background if applicable.
~ After completing the form, you will be asked to take a print confirmation of your interview.
~ You may wish to prepare for your visa interview. Student visa applicants should be able to demonstrate three criteria to visa officers:
that you are completing a bona fide degree or study abroad program in the U.S.
that you have funds for the first year of your stay in the U.S. and a plan for the remaining years
that your activities are in line with the purpose (and in particular the non-immigrant intent) of the visa you will travel on.
Be prepared to describe your reasons for studying in the U.S., your program of study and why you chose this particular university, your long-term goals, and how studying in the U.S. fits in with these goals, and your plans after you finish your degree program and return back to India.
Visa applicants are assumed to be intending to immigrate to the U.S. and overstay their visas. You will, therefore, need to prove to the immigration officer that you do not intend to overstay your visa. You will be asked to demonstrate your significant personal, cultural, or professional ties to India, the country to which you would presumably return after your studies.
Before your appointment, read the U.S. Embassy’s information on security information and plan your journey to the Embassy. Gather the documents you need for your interview, such as your passport, appointment letter, I-20/DS-2019, MRV receipt, DS-160, photo, SEVIS receipt, etc.
Before your appointment, read the U.S. Embassy’s information on security information and plan your journey to the Embassy. Gather the documents you need for your interview, such as your passport, appointment letter, I-20/DS-2019, MRV receipt, DS-160, photo, SEVIS receipt, etc.
You will then wait until your number is called for an initial processing procedure called intake. Then you submit your visa application, passport, and photo, as well as have your fingerprints taken.
You wait again until your number is called for your actual visa interview. Although the interview itself may only take a few minutes, you may be at the Embassy for a few hours in total.
You will leave your passport with the U.S. Embassy after the appointment. Expect to receive your visa and passport back within an average of 5-7 working days. Average visa waiting times are available online.
After you receive your visa, book your travel to the U.S. F-1 visa holders may enter the U.S. 30 days prior to the start date on their I-20 and stay on 60 days following the date of completion of your program listed on the I-20.
J-1 visa holders may also enter the U.S. 30 days prior to the start date on their DS-2019 but may stay on only 30 days beyond the date of completion listed on the DS-2019.
The U.S. is a very welcoming place for Indian students. Each U.S. university has an international student services office with trained counselors available to answer your questions and guide you through the process of adapting to U.S. university life.
The international student services office also organizes a variety of regularly scheduled events for international students. Many U.S. campuses also have Indian student associations, which also organize events on a regular basis.
It offers information for students, parents, and educators regarding taking standardized tests (SAT I & SAT II, or ACT), planning for college, finding a college, applying to universities, colleges, and tuition fees.
Instructional Design is the practice of creating instructional experiences which make the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing.It is the art and design of creating an instructional environment and materials that will bring the learner from the state of not being able to achieve certain tasks to the state of achieving those tasks.
Instructional design is based on theoretical and practical research in the areas of cognition, psychology and problem-solving. It is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology. Constructivism (learning theory), has influenced the thinking in the field recently.
The process of Instruction Design consists broadly of determining the current state and the needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some intervention to assist in the transition.
Ideally, the process is informed by Pedagogically(adult learning) and anagogically(adult learning) tested theories of learning and may take in place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed.
History of system approach to Instructional Design
The 1940s – The Origins of Instructional Design, World War II
The birth of Instructional design is strongly related on one hand to the emergence of empirical research in psychologically and education and on the hand to specific needs of the system.
The 1940s saw the origin of Instruction Design started during world war 1. The foundation for the instructional design was laid during World War II when hundreds of thousands needed to be taught very specific tasks in a short amount of time. Individual aspects of these upon leading to the development of instructional design, a field of study that marries education, psychology, and communications to create the most effective complex tasks were broken down, so soldiers could better understand and comprehend each step of the process.
After the success of the military training, psychologists began to view training as a system and developed various, design, and evaluation procedures. This approach was later taken and built teaching plans for specific groups of students.
1946s— Edgar Dale’s Cone of Experience
In 1946, Dale outlined a hierarchy of instructional methods and their effectiveness.
The mid-1950s through mid-1960s – The Programmed Instruction Movement
B.F.Skinner in his 1954 article “ The Science of Learning and Art of Teaching “, stated that effective instructional materials, called programmed instructional analyses, should include small steps, frequent questions, immediate feedback, and allow self-pacing.
In 1956, a committee led by Benjamin Bloom published an influential Taxonomy of what he termed as Three Domain of learning known as Bloom’s Taxonomy.
Cognitive—What one knows and thinks
Psycho meter – What one does physically
Affective—what one feels or what attitude one has.
The early 1960s – The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement
Robert Glaser first used the term “ The criterion- Referenced Testing Movement in 1962. A criterion-referenced test is designed to test an individual’s behavior in relation to an objective standard. It can be used to assess the learners’ entry-level behavior, and to what extent learners have developed mastery through an instructional program.
1965 – Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis
In 1965, Robert Gagne described five domains of learning outcomes and nine events of instruction in “The conditions of Learning”, which remain foundations of instructional design practices.
Gagné’s work in learning hierarchies and hierarchical analysis led to an important notion in instruction – to ensure that learners acquire prerequisite skills before attempting superordinate ones.
1967 – Formative Evaluation
In 1967, after analyzing the failure of training material, Michael Scriven suggested the need for formative assessment – e.g., to try out instructional materials with learners (and revise accordingly) before declaring them finalized.
The 1970s – Growing of Interest in the Systems Approach
During the 1970s, the number of instructional design models greatly increased and prospered in different sectors in the military, academia, and industry. Many instructional design theorists began to adopt an information-processing-based approach to the design of instruction
The 1980s – Introduction of Personal Computers into the Design Process
This was the era where educators and researchers began to consider how the personal computer could be used in an educational environment and efforts began to design instruction that utilized this new tool.
PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) is one example . of how computers began to be integrated into instruction. Many of the first uses of computers in the classroom were for “drill and kill” exercises. Computer-based educational games and simulations also became popular.
The 1990s – A Growing Interest in Constructivist Theory and the Importance of Performance
As constructivist theory began to gain traction, its influence on instructional design became more prominent as a counterpoint to the more traditional cognitive learning theory. Constructivists believe that learning experiences should be “authentic” and produce real-world learning environments that allow the learner to construct their own knowledge. This emphasis on the learner was a significant departure away from traditional forms of instructional design.
Another trend that surfaced during this period was the recognition of performance improvement as being an important outcome of learning that needed to be considered during the design process.
The World Wide Web is developed and begins to surface as a potential online learning tool with hypertext and hypermedia being recognized as good tools for e-learning.
As technology advanced and constructivist theory gained popularity, technology’s use in the classroom began to evolve from mostly drill and skill exercises to more interactive activities that required more complex thinking on the part of the learner.
Rapid prototyping was first seen during the 1990s. In this process, an instructional design project is prototyped quickly and then vetted through a series of tries and revises cycles. This is a big departure from traditional methods of instructional design that took far longer to complete.
The 2000’s – Rise of the Learning Internet and Online
The Internet, with its social media tools and multitudes of information resources, became a very popular tool for online learning, and instructional designers recognized the need to integrate e-learning into the creation of learning objects and curricula.
There is a great increase in the number of online courses offered by higher education institutions.
Technology advanced to the point that sophisticated simulations were now readily available to learners, thus providing more authentic and realistic learning experiences.
2010 and forward
The influence of e-tools continues to grow and has seemingly encouraged the growth of informal learning throughout a person’s lifetime. The challenge for instructional designers is how to create learning opportunities that now may occur anywhere and anytime.
What is Instructional Design Theory?
According to Reigeluth Instruction Design Theory is
(a) Design-oriented (focusing on means to attain given goals for learning or development) and identifies methods of instruction (ways to support and facilitate learning) and the situation in which these methods should and should not be used.
(b) Methods of instruction can be broken down into more detailed component methods.
(c) Methods are probabilistic, rather than deterministic.
Cognitive Load Theory and Design of Instruction
Cognitive load theory developed out of several empirical studies of learners, as they interacted with instructional materials. Sweller and his associates began to measure the effects of working memory load and found that the format of Instructional materials has an effect on the performance of the learners using those materials.
By the mid-1990s, Sweller and his associates had discovered several effects related to cognitive load and the design of instruction (e.g. the split attention effect, redundant effect, and the worked-example effect). Later, other researchers like Richard Meyer began to attribute learning effects load. Mayer and associates soon developed a Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning.
Instructional Designers use various instructional strategies to reduce cognitive load. For example, they think that the onscreen should not be more than 150 words, or the text should be presented in small meaningful chunks. The designer also uses auditory and visual methods to communicate information to the learner.
Gagne’s Theory of Instruction
Gagne’s Theory of Instruction is widely used in the design of instructional designers in many settings and has continuous influence in the field of educational technology. Synthesizing ideas from behaviorism and cognitivism, he provides a clear template that is easy to follow for designing instruction events. Instructional designers who follow Gagne’s theory will likely have totally focused, efficient instruction.
Taxonomy of Learning Outcome
Robert Gagne classified three types of learning outcomes:
a) Cognitive Domain
Verbal Information – is stated
Intellectual Skills – to apply the rules and principles. Problem-solving allows for generating solutions or procedures.
Cognitive Strategies— used for learning.
b) Affective Domain
Attitudes – are demonstrated by preferring options.
Defined concept—classify, categorize, type, sort(by definition)
Rule—demonstrate, show, solve.
Higher-order rule—generate, develop, solve.
Cognitive Strategy—adapt, create, originate.
Attitude—choose, prefer, elect, favor.
Motor Skill—execute, perform, carry out.
Nine Events of Instruction
According to Gagne, learning occurs in a series of learning events. Each learning event must be accomplished before the next in order for learning to take place. Similarly, instructional events should mirror the learning events.
Gaining attention: Before the learners can start the process of imparting any new information, the instructor must gain the attention of the learners.
Informing Learning of Objectives: The teacher tells the learners what they will be able to do because of the instruction.
Stimulating recall of prior learning: The teacher asks for the recall of existing relevant knowledge.
Presenting the stimulus: The teacher gives emphasis to distinctive features.
Providing Learning Guidance: The teacher helps the students in understanding(semantic encoding) by providing organizational and relevance.
Eliciting Performance: The teacher asks the learners to respond, demonstrating learning.
Providing feedback: The teacher gives informative feedback on the learners’ performance.
Assessing Performance: The teacher requires more learner performance and gives feedback, to reinforce learning.
Enhancing retention and transfer: The teacher provides varied practice to generalize the capability.
Gagné’s Influence on Education Today
Prior to Robert Gagne, learning was often thought of as a single, uniform process. There was little to no distinction between “learning to load a rifle and learning to solve a complex mathematical problem”. Gagné offered an alternative view that developed the ideas of different learners required different learning strategies. Understanding and designing instruction based on a learning style defined by the individual brought about new theories and approaches to teaching. Gagné ‘s understanding and theories of human learning added significantly to understanding the stages in cognitive processing and instructions.
Gagne’s work has had a significant influence on American education, military, and industrial training. Gagne was one of the early developers of the concept of instructional systems design which suggests the components of a lesson can be analyzed and should be designed to operate together as an integrated plan for instruction.
In “Educational Technology and the Learning Process” (Educational Researcher, 1974), Gagne defined instruction as “the set of planned external events which influence the process of learning and thus promote learning.”
Instructional Design Models
The ADDIE model was initially developed by Florida state university to explain
“ The process in the formulation of an instructional systems development (ISD) program for military inter-service training that will adequately train individuals to do a particular job and which can also be applied to any inter-service curriculum development activity”.
The most popular version appeared in the 1980s as we understand it today.
The Five phases of ADDIE’S Model are listed and explained below.
Analyze – Analyses refer to the gathering of information about one’s audience, the tasks to be completed, and the project’s overall goals. The instructional design then classifies the information to the content making it more useful and successful.
Design; In this phase, instructional designers begin to create their projects. Information gathered from the project, in conjunction with the theories and the models of instructional design, is meant to explain how the learning will be acquired.
Develop: Development relates to the creation of the activities being implemented. This stage is where the blueprints in the design phase are assembled.
Implement: This stage allows the instructional designer to test all materials to identify if they are functional and appropriate for the intended audience.
Evaluate: Evaluate ensures that the materials achieve the desired goals. The evaluation phase consists of two parts a)formative assessment b) summative assessment.
More models of instruction design like Rapid Prototyping, Dick, and Carey systems approach model and Instructional Development Learning System(IDLS) were developed.
Learning theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. Theories such as behaviorism constructivism, social learning, and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials.
Instructional Design in the Real World
Instructional designers create and deliver educational and training materials to learners from all walks of life in a variety of ways. They work with traditional paper materials, such as handouts and manuals, as well as e-Learning technologies and multimedia. Their work can be seen in elementary and secondary schools to universities and adult training facilities. They’re also found outside the academic sector in a range of industries including health care, retail, and the military. Justin Ferriman, an e-Learning consultant, even goes as far as resources wisely.
Instructional designers often work as part of a team, but their importance can’t be overestimated. Consider an eLearning course for example. An instructional designer will play a part in developing this course, along with a multimedia designer, eLearning developer, and a quality assurance employee.
For the corporate sector, instructional design plays an integral role that many don’t often see. When new training programs are introduced within companies, instructional designers are the ones that systematically collect, process, and analyze data, determining if employees were properly educated on the new topics introduced. If an area of the training doesn’t meet the previously set standards, then it’s an instructional designer’s duty to revamp the course to help make sure that learners are able to understand the topics down the road. This process helps ensure that companies are working efficiently and using their resources wisely.
The usefulness of instructional designers across a range of industries ensures they are in high demand. The Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a 20 percent job growth within the field by 2020.
The Benefits of Instructional Design
The Benefits of Instructional design are cost-effective, given that it ensures students learn the strengths and weaknesses of students. These materials are also focused and customize efficiently by creating high-quality learning materials that take into account the d to address the specific needs of educators. These experts also safeguard against training materials being created for business problems, which are better served with non-training solutions.
Above all, instructional design yields results. Those in this field create lesson plans intended to engage students, so they’re more likely to achieve their goals. Evaluation is a key final phase of instructional design implementation, so instructors can ensure that the learning sessions have been effective in meeting preset objectives.
The ultimate aim of the design process is to develop a reliable training program. It must improve the learner’s possibility of learning and be a unique attention-capturing experience for them. So if the instructional design engages the learner by making the information more efficient and appealing it is a success.
National Institute Ranking Framework was approved and launched by Ministry of HRD , Govt. of India on 29th September 2015.
This framework outlines a methodology to measure performance and rank institutions of higher education across the country. The methodology draws from the overall recommendation laid down by the Ministry of HRD , to identify the broad parameters for ranking various Institutions and universities.
National Institute Ranking Framework has ranked institutions in India for last three years in 2016, 2017 and 2018. This is the fourth consecutive edition of Indian ranking of Indian Institutions in India.
Unlike other rankings in popular media , National Institute Ranking Framework ranking deploy objective criteria and metrics from third parties sources as well as from institutions themselves. Several Improvements were effected on Data collection formats, metrics and comparison methodology used for Indian Rankings over the years.
The Indian Ranking 2019 continues with the consolidation process building upon existing National Institute Ranking Framework parameters, experience gained over the last three years and feedback from stakeholders to establish effective benchmarks to access performance of the Indian academic institutions in the higher education space.
The practice of pre-registration of National Institute Ranking Framework rankings and inviting new institutions for ranking through an open advertisement continued this year also. A total of 3127 unique institutions responded and offered themselves for ranking under “overall” Category specific or Domain – specific ranking. In all , 4867 applications for ranking were made by these 3127 unique applicant institutions under various category/domains.
The Indian ranking has successfully instilled the culture of collection, compilation and curation of data required for ranking of institutions who are now carefully maintaining data pertaining to their to their faculty, students, placement, infrastructure ,expenditure on library and laboratories ,etc.
This culture is important for institutions themselves since analysis of data provides the big picture of trends and patterns that can be used for evaluating and streamlining processes, creating efficiencies and improving overall student experiences. While at institutional level, the data and its analytics can help in assessing institutes themselves against benchmarks, at the national level, the data can serve as a base for analyses of the status of higher education institutions in the country.
It may further be noted that all data for ranked institutions is painstakingly verified, inconsistencies, contradictions and outliers are screened and identified. This requires lot of diligence, patience and tactful handling of institutions who might with direct and blunt questions on validity of data.
With continuing improvement in reliability of data from institutions, it would be possible for NIRF team to concentrate on refining existing ranking parameters and metrics and pursuit for additional parameters that can be deployed for ranking and institutions. Moreover, it would also be possible to bring –in larger – number of institutions into the ambit of rankings with an ultimate goal of ranking every deserving institution.
Disciplines – Wise methodology for Indian Rankings.
In 2019, A common overall ranking was introduced for institutions that have minimum of 1000 students from the year 2017 onwards in addition to the category- specific rankings so as to provide a common view of comparable institutions across categories and disciplines.
It is important that the credibility that the Indian institutions have earned is maintained with careful attention in details. As a matter of practice 100 institutions are ranked in Overall , University and colleges categories whereas ranking is kept restricted to only 15 to 75 institutions in all domain specific rankings (Architecture , Pharmacy, law, Management, engineering and Medical) because of reliability of data.
There are total Nine rankings – Overall Category(1), Category specific rankings(2, University and colleges) and Domain specific category (6).
The institutions are according to the disciplines they are specializing in. The disciplines on which the institutions are ranked are given below.
a) Overall b) Universities c) Colleges d) Pharmacy e) Engineering f) Architecture g) Law h) Medical I) Management
In 2020 , the number of institutes ranked in Overall are 1479, Colleges 1304, engineering 970, Management 555, Pharmacy 301, Architecture 65, Medical 113, and Law 80.
The NIRF Parameters of Ranking.
The NIRF provides 16 to 18 parameters organized in five broad generic groups of parameters for the final ranking. Some of these parameters are common to those employed globally and serve as pointers to ambience for teaching , learning and research.
Teaching , Learning and Resources(TLR): These parameters are related to core activities of and place of learning.
Student strength including doctoral parameters.
Faculty-student ratio with emphasis on permanent faculty.
Combined metric for faculty with PHD, and experience.
Financial institutions and their.
Research and professional Learning(RP) : Excellence in teaching and learning is closely associated with the scholarship.
Combined metric for publication
Combined metrics for quality of publication
IPR and Patents- Published and granted.
Footprints of project and professional practice.
Graduation Outcome(GO): This parameter forms the ultimate test of the effectiveness of the core teaching and learning.
a) Metric for university examination
b) Metric for number of Phd students graduated.
Outreach and inclusivity(OI): The ranking framework lay special emphasis on the representation of women.
Percentage of students from other states and countries
Percentage of women
Economically and socially challenged students
Facilities for physically challenged
Perception(PR): The ranking methodology gives significant emphasis to the perception of the institutions.
Academic peer and employees.
Each of these parameters is given weightage from 100 and then the institutions are ranked by that weightage.
The National Board of Accreditation(NBA) was the primary agency that was given the overall responsibility of coordinating and executing the ranking work in consultation with the Implementation core committee, constituted by MHRD. NBA invited the applications for registration of institutions for ranking in various disciplines and the overall ranking. It coordinated with its collaborators to execute all aspects of the ranking
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Being an entrepreneur can be fun, intoxicating, and very lucrative but don’t join SFI if you are not willing to invest some time and effort. Success work before work only in the dictionary. There are no shortcuts.
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One more thing: My #1 job in SFI is helping the affiliates that I sponsor become successful. When you join my team, know that in me you will have a committed partner and mentor and that I stand ready to assist you in any way I can.
Thank you and I hope to hear you’ve joined my team soon.
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The Corona Virus is going global and it could bring the world economy to a standstill . The economic fall out could bring recessions in the US, Europe, and Japan, the slowest growth rate in China, and in a total of 2.7 trillion US$ in lost output equivalent of the entire GDP of the UK.
The share market saw its worst due to this virus. As reports of the virus spreading to other parts increased, Wall Street in New York saw its biggest plunge since 2008. The oil prices crashed and bond yields tumbled. The S&P plunge has its worst day in a decade.
The Indian stock market saw its biggest plunges after reaching the highest point in its entire history on January 20th, 2020. It plunged 1449 points on feb.14, 2020, then 1942 points on 9th March 2020, and then its biggest plunge on 2919 points on 13th March 2020. The investors lost Rs 11 lakh crores in just one day and Rs 31 lakh crores since its all-time high of Jan 20th,2020.
The Pandemic could give a crippling blow to the tourism industry all over the world as restrictions are being imposed on movements of foreigners and tourists. The mega-events and sports events are being canceled by the government all over the places.
Statewide Emergency is being imposed, Schools and colleges are being closed, Events and flights from affected countries are being canceled, Victims are being quarantined and segregated like lepers in different countries in their efforts to contain this epidemic.
It has spread so rapidly and to so many countries that the World Health Organization has declared it a pandemic (a term indicating that it has affected a large population, region, country, or continent).
It is not the Pandemic that surprises me. It is the cruel fact that I am living in the 21st century with no cure or vaccine to this epidemic. The number of deaths continues to amaze me as they mostly come from developed nations where the health and medical services are excellent.
It reminds us of how the epidemic Plague and Malaria used to play havoc on the human population in the pre-20th-century era when there was no vaccine to counter them. We spend billions of dollars in research and development in medicine, yet we cannot get a cure for this disease or even flu which has taken its own toll.
What is Corona Virus?
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that range from the common cold to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus(MERS) and Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) corona
Coronaviruses are circulating in animals and some of these coronaviruses have the capability of transmitting between animals and humans. We call that a spillover event.
COVID-19 is the short form for “Coronavirus disease 2019,” and is the official name given by the World Health Organization to the disease caused by this newly identified coronavirus.
What are the symptoms of COVID-19?
The common symptoms include low-grade fever, nasal congestion, body aches, coughing, running nose, and sore throat. However severe symptoms of COVID-19, high fever, shortness of breath, and severe cough.
The patient takes 3 to 13 days to show the signs of these symptoms.
How does COVID-19 spread?
The COVID – 19 spreads mainly through person to person. It spreads when people are in close contact. It can spread when an infected person by sneezes or coughs so it is a respiratory virus. It can spread if the infected person touches a surface or an object that has a virus on it.
People are said to be contagious when they are symptomatic or at the early stages of illness.
The virus spreads faster in the colder season than in the hotter season.
How deadly is COVID-19?
More people have died due to Influenza than COVID-19, this season. Flu is regarded as a bigger threat than COVID-19. The startling fact is that unlike Flu, where you can get a vaccine to cure it, there is no vaccine or antiviral drugs to cure COVID-19 presently.
Who is at the highest risk for getting very sick from COVID-19?
Older people, and those with underlying problems like medical chronic bronchitis, emphysema, heart failure, or diabetes, are more likely to develop seriously. Children, including very young children, can develop COVID-19.
What can you do to protect me and others from COVID-19?
Prevention is better than cure, especially when it is not available. The following actions help prevent the spread of COVID-19, as well as other COVID-19 and influenza:
Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
Stay home when you are sick.
Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue, then throw the tissue in the trash.
Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces using a regular household cleaning spray or wipe.
Wash your hands often with soap and water.
If you have respiratory symptoms like coughing or sneezing, experts recommend wearing a mask to protect others.
What can you do to keep my immune system strong?
Your immune system is your body’s defense system. When a harmful invader — like a cold or flu virus, or the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 — gets into your body, your immune system mounts an attack. Known as an immune response, this attack is a sequence of events that involves various cells and unfolds over time.
Following general health guidelines is the best step you can take toward keeping your immune system strong and healthy.
Eat a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Take a multivitamin if you suspect that you may not be getting all the nutrients you need through your diet.
Maintain a healthy weight.
Control your stress level.
Control your blood pressure.
If you drink alcohol, drink only in moderation (no more than one to two drinks a day for men, no more than one a day for women).
Get enough sleep.
Take steps to avoid infection, such as washing your hands frequently and trying not to touch your hands to your face, since harmful germs can enter through your eyes, nose, and mouth.
What can you do to prepare for a COVID?
For peace of mind, try to plan ahead for a possible outbreak.
For example, if there is an outbreak in your community, you may not be able to get to a store, or stores may be out of supplies, so it will be important for you to have extra supplies on hand.
Stay up to date with reliable news resources, such as the website of your local health department. If your town or neighborhood has a website or social media page, consider joining it to maintain access to neighbors, information, and resources.
Try to stock at least a 30-day supply of any needed prescriptions. If your insurance permits 90-day refills, that’s even better. Make sure you also have over-the-counter medications and other health supplies on hand.
Hello everybody at Digital Deepak Internship Program. After the hectic first assignment, it is time for all of us to march ahead and complete assignment number 2. So once again we had a live webinar with Mr Deepak Kanakaraju, this time from Delhi where he was attending a Digital Marketing conference. And yes he was accompanied by yet another Indian affiliate Marketing guru Mr Kulwant Negi who also shared his knowledge of Affiliate Marketing with all of us.
Our focus from the webinar will be on three main tasks:
The knowledge that Mr Deepak shared with us in this webinar .
How your Customer Avatar helps you to find and reach your target Audience.
Make a customer Avatar survey and then build your Customer Avatar Persona.
The knowledge that Mr. Deepak shared with us in this webinar.
a) Focus on the Class
Avoid Distraction and concentrate on your work. Distraction is more harmful to your Brain than drugs. The more focused you are, the easier everything becomes and you tend to attract who you are focused on serving.
b) The Golden Triangle
No, we are not discussing the drugs cartel of Burma but the interrelationship between Learning, Doing and Teaching. When you learn you gain knowledge , then you start doing your work and then you can impart or teach that knowledge to others. When you teach you learn even more and more and you perform even better. This is the Golden Triangle.
c) Mistakes are our Future benefits.
To err is human. Those who do not make mistakes seldom learn. So don’t be afraid of making mistakes as they help you to improve.
d) Marketing is about Good Conversations.
Learn to converse with your friends, your family, your colleagues and everyone around you. People converse with their environment and their pets.
Marketing is all about communication and conversation. If you cannot converse 1:1, then how can you converse in front of a large audience.
e) Who is the Better Marketer
People with more life experiences are better marketer. So one must travel, gain more knowledge, learn new languages and converse with people with different culture. Then you become an interesting person in the eyes of your peer .You become broad minded and shed negativity from your thoughts.
f) Who is your Audience
If everyone is your audience, then nobody is your audience. Marketers, who try to speak everyone’s language, connect with nobody. You should build your target audience, create your customer Avatar and concentrate on him.
g) How to Define your Target Customer.
By talking to people and segmenting by various demographic (their age, address, religion, gender) and psychographic data (their attitudes, values, interests, lifestyles), you can construct customer profiles that make it easier to market your product.
Write to one single customer at a time even though you have a big audience Connect with them with one to one communication.
Join mental conversation with your customers.
That is why email/messaging is more powerful than social media. Addressing. People with their First name create more amiable atmosphere and put the person in ease. Try to write email to a person as a friend.
h) Bulls Eye
Focus on the centre, not on the border. As you will move away from the centre you will dilute. You won’t be visible to anybody.
i) Awkwardness is an Indicator of learning.
Awkwardness is when you get into situation where you feel uncomfortable and try to get out of it .It is taking you away from your comfort zone where you want to stay . In marketing, you will find yourself in such a situation many a times.
j) Challenge what you already know and create new beliefs and way of thinking.
2) How Customer Avatar helps you to find and reach your target Audience.
A great Marketing campaign promotes an amazing product to its right customers, on the right platform at the right time.
The problem with many businesses is that after they have designed and developed an amazing product, they could not target the right customers on right platform and make vague guesses on timing.
This is not good anymore.
What is a Customer Avatar?
A customer Avatar is a detailed profile of your ideal customer. It does not make assumptions or categorize people into groups. The Avatar focuses on just one person and outlines everything about them. It goes into much greater depth than a regular marketing persona, providing marketers with many more targeting tools.
It is crucial that you create a customer avatar of your ideal customer, not any buyer. Your Ideal customer is one whom you are really willing to sell. They are high spending, loyal, repeat buyers and referral monsters.
If you have customer like this, then this customer can become the foundation of your Customer Avatar.
Who needs a customer Avatar?
Every Business especially small and medium needs a Customer Avatar. Businesses that previously spent millions of Rupees on their marketing budgets can also benefit in making their customer avatar.
Why do we need a customer Avatar?
Most businesses try to focus on the whole market to sell their products. This is called “Broad Targeting”. Such businesses end up selling to nobody. Such businesses overspend on their budget in marketing, yet could not sell enough.
Therefore it is crucial to know your Target Market.
The better you know about your target customers, the more people you will connect with , more you will get the repeat buyers and more referrals you will get.
And all of it at much less cost.
A detailed Customer avatar will also streamline your business at every level.
When you have an avatar, everybody involved in the business can up their game and focus their efforts efficiently:
Product Development: You can create a product specifically designed for one person. This makes the process more personalizes, targeted and relevant.
Content Marketing: A customer avatar allows content creators to produce content that solves and appeal to their needs.
Paid Traffic: If you are running ads, it is imperative that you have clear customer avatar in your mind. Understanding everything of your ideal customer allows you to target them precisely.
User Experience: When you know who your ideal customer is, you can create the perfect experience for them beginning with their first interaction, web visit and purchase. A perfect user experience guarantees repeat custom and referrals.
How to create a Customer Avatar.
There are 4 steps to create your Customer Avatar.
First step: Create your customer avatar Template.
Choose three questions for your survey to get building a persona:
A Key Demographic (age, marital status, education, address) and Psychographic (their attitudes, values, goals, interests, lifestyles) types of questions.
A key customer goal
A key Concern or barrier to customer to achieve that goal.
Second Step: When you have your customer avatar template ready. It’s time to begin. Set up the survey or its link (URL) on your most Popular page . Personalize with thank you message. Set the appearance.
As your target customer sees it, he fill the information for you.
Third Step: Analyze the Data that you have collected from your customers.
Fourth Step: Build your Customer Persona. Based on your data, you analyze Create one simple user persona that represents the largest chunk of your database and identified a Key demographic, a key goal and Key concern/barrier to purchase.
Points to Note while taking the survey:
Don’t confuse demographic and personas. A useful persona is more than person’s age, gender, marital status and address.
Finally, I have reached my goal. After conducting the survey, I finally was able to create my Customer Avatar.
Now let me tell you about Digital Deepak. It is an online Digital Marketing Training Institute. It markets digital Marketing courses for the customers all over India. Anyone with access to a computer or even a mobile with an internet can get access to the Digital Marketing course after paying the required price which is nominal.
This Survey has been taken to find an Ideal Customer for the Institute’s course.
My Customer Avatar name is Devinder Singh Rathore (Fictitious Name). He is young male of between 25 to 35 years of age. He lives in Bangalore, the I.T. capital of India. His is single and stays with his parents. His family income is in the range of Rs 5 lacs to 10 Lacs per annum. His goes to Gym everyday and also likes to travel.
He is computer literate and owns a laptop. He is looking for a job and his career goal is to become a Successful Digital Marketer. That is why he wants to take a course in Digital Marketing from a good Digital Marketing Training Institute. Since he has heard about Digital Deepak as India’s premium Digital marketing training institute, he would love to join this institute. He feels that Digital Deepak can provide him a start up growth in Digital marketing in a good company and from there he can realize his career goal to become a successful digital Marketer.
If we can convince him that this Institute is genuine and would not run away with his money we have him as our customer.
A customer avatar should be a fundamental element of your marketing strategy. It creates a foundation for targeting and allows everyone in your business to understand exactly who you’re striving to attract.
Marketing campaigns that already know the specifics of their target market will always require less money and time, and provide a greater ROI.
Early education in India commenced under the supervision of ‘Guru”. Initially, education was open to all and seen as one of the methods to achieve Moksha or enlightenment. Later due to superiority complex, the education was imparted on the basis of castes with the Brahmins learning about scriptures, kshatriya the art of warfare, The Vaishya learned about business and commerce while none or minimal education was imparted to lowermost castes, the Shudras.
Education in its traditional form was closely related to religion.
Education in India– Nalanda UniversityAmong the heterodox schools of learning were the Jain and Buddhist schools. Buddhist education was more inclusive and Buddhist education centers were urban institutes of learning, such as Taxila and Nalanda where grammar, medicine, philosophy, logic, metaphysics, arts, and crafts were taught.
Taxila was the earliest recorded center of higher learning in India in 5th century B.C. Chanakya, a brahmin teacher was among the most famous teacher of Taxila. Nalanda University was the oldest university system in the world. These institutions continue to function well and were attended by students from India, Bhutan, Tibet, and central Asia.
The Brahmin gurus historically offered education by means of donations rather than charging fees from students. Later temples became the center of education. Religious education was compulsory, but the secular subject was also. Students were required to be Brahmacharis or celibates. The book of laws, “Manusmriti” and the Treatise on statecraft the “Arthashastra” were the influential works of that era.
The Medieval Period
Buddhist institutions of learning giving way to a resurgent tradition of Brahminism during this period. Scholars from India journeyed to China to translate Buddhist texts. Chinese scholars such as Xuanzang and Yi Jing arrived in Indian institutions of learning to survey Buddhist texts. Dharmendra from the 10th century from Nalanda journeyed to China and translated a number of texts.
With the advent of Islam in India, the traditional methods of education increasingly came under Islamic influence. Pre Mughal rulers such as Qutb-u-din tughlaq and other Muslim leaders initiated institutions that imparted knowledge. Scholars like Nizamuddin Auliya and Moinuddin Chisti became prominent educators and established Islamic monasteries. Students from Bukhara and Afghanistan visited India to study humanities and science.
Islamic institutions of education in India inducted traditional Madrasas and Maktabs which taught grammar, philosophy, mathematics, and law influenced by Greek tradition.
The education system in the Mughal dynasty especially under Akbar favored courses like medicine, agriculture, geography, Patanjali works in Sanskrit. The traditional science in this period was influenced by the ideas of Aristotle, Bhaskara2, Charaka, Ibsen. Even Aurangzeb favored teaching subjects like administration. During the Mughal dynasty, the more intolerant Ottoman school of manque education came to be gradually substituted by the more relaxed Maqui school.
The Colonial Era.
The colonial-era saw a high difference of opinion among the colonialists themselves about education themselves for Indians. They were divided into two schools– the orientalists, who believed that education should in Indian languages like Sanskrit or Persian or Utilitarians(Anglicists) who strongly believed that India has nothing to teach its own subject but English.
Lord Macaulay introduced English education in India in 1835. He called an education system that could create a class of anglicized Indians who serve as cultural intermediaries between the British and Indians.
The University of Madras was founded in 1857 under the leadership of entirely clean caste and mainly brahmans. The Madras medical college opened in 1835 and admitted women and in 1894, the women’s Christian medical college, an exclusive medical school for women was established in Ludhiana, Punjab. Mayo College was founded in 1875 was the first modern institution for Muslims in India. By 1920 it became the Aligarh Muslim University.
In 1882 there were 4 universities and 67 colleges, by 1901 there were 5 universities and 145 colleges, in 1922 there were 14 universities and 167 colleges and in 1947 there were 21 universities and 496 colleges in operation. There were 4 colleges of engineering in 1847, and by 1930 India has 10 technical institutions.
Education in Modern India is provided by the public as well as private control and funding coming from the three-level: The Centre, the state, and the Local.
India has free and compulsory education between the age of 6 and 14. As per the annual statistics of education report(ASER) 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages of 6 to 14 were enrolled in school.
A significant number of seats are reserved for weaker sections of the society in all educational institutions affiliated to the central and state government. The sections include Scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes.
Most private schools in India are modeled after British Public Schools, which are a group of older, expensive, and exclusive paying private independent schools. The number of private schools in India is low with 7% in primary,21% in the middle, and 32% in secondary.
According to the census of 2011, anyone who is above 7 years of age can read and write with understanding in ant language is said to be literate. In the 2011 census, the literacy rate in India was 74.07%. The youth literacy rate within the age group of 15 to 24 is 81.1%. The literacy rate among males is 84.4% while it is 74.4% among females.
School Education in India
The pupil to teacher ratio within the public school system for primary education is 35:1. However, the teacher absenteeism in India is as high as 25%.
In terms of facilities, a study of 188 government-run schools found that 59% of the schools no drinking water and 89% have no toilets.
To improve the school education system in India, the government has laid down many programs like National Policy of Education(NPE), Universal Elementary Education(UEE), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan(SSA), Right to Education(RTE), Mid-day meal scheme, Mahila Sankhya program, scheme to allow quality education in Madrasas and scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes(I.D.M.I.).
Since India has a (10+2 +3 ) pattern of education, the policy of the government is to make secondary education of good quality available, accessible and affordable to all young students in the age group of 14-18 years. The minimum age is 15 years for secondary schools and 17 years for senior school board exams.
The National Council of Education Research & Training is the APEX body for curriculum-related matters for schools education in India. Other curriculum bodies governing school education are the central Board of secondary education(CBSE), Council for Indian School certificate exam(CISCE) National Institute of Open Schooling) National Institute of Open Schooling) NIOS, and state government board.
National Council of Education, Research & Training(NCERT) is an apex resource organization to assist and advise central & State government on academic matters in school education. Organizations like Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan(KVS) to provide uninterrupted education to wards of central govt. employes, Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti(NVS) to provide good quality education to talented children, National Bal Bhawan aiming at enhancing the creative potential of children, and Information of Communication Technology(ICT) has been set up to improve school education in India.
Higher Education in India
India’s higher education system is the third-largest in the world after China and the USA. The main governing body of the tertiary level is the University Grants Commission(UGC) which enforces its standards, advises the government, and helps coordinate between the state and center.
Regulatory Authorities like UGC and AICTE have been trying very hard to extirpate the menace of private universities which are running courses without any affiliation or recognition. The Indian government has failed to check on these education shops which are running by the businesses and political solely for the purpose of making money.Many of these private colleges do not fulfill the criterion by the government and the central bodies ( UGC,AICTE,MCI, BCI etc.)
The Government of India is aware of the plight of the higher education sector and has been trying to bring reforms, however, many bills are still awaiting discussion and approval in the Parliament.
One of the approaches to make internationalization of Indian higher education effective is to develop a coherent and comprehensive policy that aims at infusing excellence, bringing institutional diversity, and aids in capacity building.
The department of higher education(MHRD), is responsible for the overall development of the basic infrastructure of the higher education sector, both in terms of policy and planning.
Higher Education is the shared responsibility of both the Centre and the States. The coordination and determination of standards in Universities & Colleges are entrusted to the UGC and other statutory regulatory bodies.
Central University: A university established or incorporated by a Central Act.
State University: A university established or incorporated by a Provincial Act or by a State Act.
Private University:A university established through a State/Central Act by a sponsoring body viz. A Society registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860, or any other corresponding law for the time being in force in a State or a Public Trust or a Company registered under Section 25 of the Companies Act, 1956.
Deemed-to-be University: An Institution is commonly known as Deemed University, refers to a high-performing institution, which has been so declared by the Central Government under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.
Institution of National Importance: An Institution established by Act of Parliament and declared as Institution of National Importance.
Institution under State Legislature:ActAn Institution established or incorporated by a State Legislature Act.
The Indian government has set up councils and institutes for promoting specialised higher education in the technical field. Some of these councils are:
Indian Council of Social Science Research(ICSSR) for promoting social science research, strengthening different disciplines, improving quality and quantum of research and its utilization in national policy formulation.
Indian Council of Philosophical Research(ICPR) was set up in 1977 for the promotion of research in Philosophy and allied discipline.
Indian Council of Historical Research(ICHR)was set up in 1972 to give proper direction to historical research.
National Council of Rural Institutes(NCRI) was set up in Hyderabad to promote higher education in rural areas.
National Assessment and Accreditation Council(NAAC) was set up to assess and accredit institutions of higher learning, universities, and colleges.
India Institute of Advanced Study(IIAS) was established in 1965, is a residential center for free and creative themes and problems of life and thought.
National Research Professorship(NRP) was established in 1949, honors distinguished academics and scholars in recognition of their contribution to knowledge.
All India Council for Technical Education(AICTE) was established in 1987, and conducts the development of technical education in the country at all levels, evolve suitable performance appraisal system for technical institutions and universities,lay down norms, standards for courses, curricula,physical and infrastructural facilities ,etc.
The Medical Council of India(MCI) was established under MCI act 1956 amended in 1993 and is empowered to prescribe minimum standards for medical education education required for granting recognized medical qualification or medical institution in India.
Indian Council of Agriculture Research(ICAR) was established to meet agricultural research and education needs of the country.
National Council of Teachers Education(NCTE) facilitated the planning and development of the teacher education system in the country and regulates and maintains proper norms and standards in the teacher education system.
Bar Council of India prescribes a class or category of person entitled to be enrolled as advocate.
Council of Scientific Reaearch &Training (CSIR) is known for its cutting edge R&D knowledgebase in diverse areas and is a contemporary R&D organisation. Having Pan- India’s presence, CSIR has a dynamic network of 38 national universities,39 outreach centres, 3 innovation complexes, and 5 units.CSIR R&D expertise and experience in embodied with about 4600 scientists supported by about 8000 scientific and technical personnel.CSIR is ranked 84th among 4851 institution worldwide and is the only top 100 global institution.CSIR is ranked 17th in Asia and leads the country in the first position.
Apart from the above institutes and councils India has 16 Indian Institutes of technology(IITs) which are regarded as the “Institute of National Importance”, 13 Indian Institute of Management(IIMs), and 1 Indian Institute of Science.