FMGE to NExT 2022- Making a Dynamic Career in Medicine for lesser Mortals from Abroad

Becoming a doctor is a lifelong ambition which most of the students nurture through their early years of their education. We all have ambitions to become doctors, engineers, IAS, Military, Bankers etc and studying medicine is one of them. Preparing yourself for medical exams like NEET, FMGE and now NExT  is a difficult proposition if you are not so brilliant.

In our country or anywhere in the world a profession like doctor is a coveted one. This is because of the fact that it is not just highly paying but also due to the fact that it is a highly respected profession. 

Doctors are venerated a lot. After all they are the life savers. Their place is next only to God in the society. People look up to them to save their near and dear ones. Thanks to this position they possess they are being paid handsomely too.  

Doctors are much in demand in almost all parts of the world especially in third world countries like India where the health condition is bad. The demand and supply gap are wide. People in backward regions may not have seen doctors for months. The hospital’s conditions are pathetic. 

As per record in 2017, the population of India is 1.33 billion. This huge population is served by 1.8 million registered medical graduates. The ratio is 1.34 doctor for 1000 Indian citizens in 2017. The World Health Organization recommends a standard ratio of 1:1000 doctor to population ratio. Data shows that only eleven states among the 28 states in India meet this requirement. 

The outbreak of COVID 19 revealed the shortcomings of the Indian Health care. The WHO recommends 1 doctor, 2.5 nurses and 3.5 beds per 1000 population, while India has 0.65 doctors, 1.3 nurses, and 1,3 hospital beds per 1000 population. Although India has done a tremendous job in dealing with the pandemic. 

The public health care system operates in the dismissal ratio of 0.08 doctors per 1000 people. Studies show that India is facing a shortage of 2 million doctors. 

The high demand for doctors has resulted in the opening of more medical colleges. 

As the government is unable to cope with the rising demand, private medical colleges have been opened to meet the growing demand. Yet the demand has not been met. Now the students opt to go abroad and study medicine or dentistry there.  

Going abroad to study medicine is not new for a third world country like India Every other country takes pride in sending its talented students to developed nations to harness their potential. 

The important fact is where they send their children for further education. Destination to the right place is critical for parents. Also, the fear of getting duped plays an important factor for parents. Right college, Right subject for specialization, Standard facilities, Scope and Placements, and above all the finance that includes college and hostel fees, plus cost of other amenities like food, books etc. scholarships, all play an important part while planning for the career.  

How do you prepare for the medical exams? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
NEET Medical Examination

Studying medicine is expensive nowadays especially if you score low in the entrance exams. In India, you can appear and get admission to medical colleges through a common entrance exam for medicine NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test).

About 16 lacs appear for this entrance exam to fulfil their dreams to become doctors. The total number of seats in India for medical colleges is only about 90,000. More than half of these seats are in government colleges while the rest are in private colleges. 

To get into top medical colleges in India you must have a very good NEET score. These have quota systems like Government quota, management quota and NRI quota. Government quota is relatively cheaper than the Management and NRI quota which require high NEET Score and are very expensive. 

What is the Cost of Getting Admission in Medical College? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
China Medical University

It all depends on your NEET Score. High score means you get into a good medical college with a scholarship which reduces the financial burden. Less NEET score means you will get into a low-ranking medical college with no scholarship.  

The fees for a MBBS degree in a government college in India range from Rs 20,000 to 7.5 lacs while in a private college it may range from Rs 20 lacs to 1.2 crores. All depends on your NEET score. 

Top destination for medical students abroad and their fees 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
Kyiv University classroom
Kazakhastan Russian medical university
Kazakhastan Russian Medical University

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals

China, Russia and Ukraine account for 60% of the students who study medicine abroad. China accounts for the third of the total outflow followed by Russia and Ukraine. Other countries include Kyrgyzstan, Philippines, Kazakhstan, Nepal, Georgia, Armenia, Nepal and Bangladesh.   

The main reason for thousands of students from India going abroad to these countries for further studies are  

  1. Low Cost 
  2. Less Competition 
  3. Better Job opportunity to work in a European country

 1. Low Cost

Pursuing MBBS is relatively cheaper in these countries than in India. The fees for the entire MBBS course which is typically of six years in these countries including living expenses and cost of coaching to clear the screening test on return to India would cost around Rs 35 lacs in a decent college in any one of these countries. It is Rs 18 lacs to 25 lacs in lesser-known colleges and just 11 lakhs to 13 lacs in the colleges in China where they teach a mix of Chinese and allopathic systems. The living expenses in these countries is around 1.5 lac to 2 lacs per annum that amounts to a total of Rs 9 lacs. 

In India in comparison only the tuition fees for the MBBS course in a private medical college cost at least Rs 45 lakhs to Rs55 lacs for 4.5 years MBBS course. The management quota seats it is approximately around 30 lakhs to 70 lacs. For NRI quota the fees are approx. 90 lacs to 1.5 crores.  

2. Less Competition 

In India if you want to get a seat in a good medical college you must have an excellent NEET score. With a limited number of seats which are just 5% of the total number of students who appear for this entrance exam the going is going to be tough. In 2021 about 16 lacs applied for the NEET Exam and about 8.7 lacs cleared the NEET UG Exam. 

Although the quality of students going abroad may be poor, they have very good reasons to study medicine. Almost 90% of these students who study abroad fail to clear the qualifying exams in India according to the Indian government.  

3.  Better Job opportunity to work in a European country

The students upon completing their MBBS from these countries can go for MS there and then get a job in a hospital in these European countries.  

What is Foreign Medical Graduate examination (FMGE)? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals

Foreign Medical Graduate Examination (FMGE) also known as medical council of India screening test is a licensure examination conducted by the National Board of Examination (NBE) in India. 

FMGE is one of the mandatory requirements for an Indian citizen who has a medical degree from a college outside India and wants to practice medicine in India. FMGE was introduced in India in 2002 as a qualifying examination for Indian students who have obtained their medical degrees from countries outside India.  

What is FMGE Eligibility? 

You must be clear about the eligibility criteria of the exam before you appear for it. Here are the eligibility criteria that you must fulfil. 

  • You must be an overseas citizen of India (OCI) or a Bona-fide citizen of India. 
  • You must possess a primary medical degree that is confirmed by the concerned Indian embassy. It is mandatory that your qualifications are recognized by the country where the institute is situated so that you can enroll as a medical practitioner. 
  • You will have to submit documents as proof to support your educational claims. 
  • Students who studied medicine from countries like the US, UK, Australia, New Zealand, or Canada, are exempted from this exam as the universities of these countries are recognized by the MCI. 
  • Students from countries of the former Soviet Union, East European countries, China, Nepal, Philippines, and Caribbean countries are required to clear this exam.

FMGE is held twice a year. All the candidates are allowed three attempts to clear the exam. The difficulty level of FMGE is high and comparable to NEET-PG.

The National Medical Commission which replaced the Medical Council of India in 2020 released the draft regulations on FMGs that amends their requirements for screening tests. Starting from 2022, overseas graduates who intend to practice medicine in India will have to clear NExT within two years of completing their medical studies abroad. The draft regulation is expected to become official soon. 

This is not all. After clearing MCI Exam, you are required to apply for an internship in an Indian medical college for a period of one year.   

Why do we require Screening test for foreign students? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals

The FMGE or NExT screening test is extremely tough. It has a low pass percentage ranging from 14% to 20%. from year to year. The screening test is a kind of refinery to get better quality students. This is important also as all of them will serve the public in health care that is saving precious lives. It is alleged most of the students who study in these countries are of poor quality like the students of low-ranking medical colleges in India. The Indian govt. and the low pass percentage has only confirmed this allegation. 

This screening test also reveals the shortcomings and poor quality of the training and research provided by the medical colleges abroad. These students are lured by the unethical consultants who charge exorbitant fees to place these students to these colleges. No doubt these students fail to clear the screening tests despite paying so much. 

The licensing system assures that only deserving students get the license in India.  

What is the future of Indian Medical Students from Abroad? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
China Medical University Classroom training

The career of Indian students who have completed an MBBS degree from abroad and want to settle in India depends on their screening test result. 

Students from the US, UK, and other countries from the west are much better off as they do not have to take this screening test. 

The new screening test prepared by the National Medical Commission; National Exit Test (NeXT) from 2022 is going to change all that. Now all the students who want to study in Indian Medical colleges after completing their MBBS from anywhere in the world will have to take NeXT for their PG.  

It all depends on how serious you are while taking medicine as your career, especially abroad. Though the standard of education, infrastructure and facilities may be excellent abroad it all depends on how serious the student is.  

Till 2018, anyone who have barely passed their 12 can get admission to these medical colleges abroad. But after 2018, the Indian government has made it compulsory for students to clear NEET and take admission abroad in medicine. 

When you go abroad for further studies you face two things; 

  • You get into a good university and come up with flying colors. 
  • You get into a bad university and are trapped for 6 years after paying a huge amount.

So, your career in Medicine depends on you. Your choice of medical college and your ability to clear the screening test after returning from abroad after completing your MBBS. 


Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

Data entry is a computer process that converts data into information or knowledge. In today’s corporate world with cutthroat competition the need for accurate and updated data has become a critical issue for all the companies big or small.  Here is where the role of data entry clerk has become central to the process. 

What are the types of Data entry jobs? 

Since there are different types of data entry jobs the role can vary from one industry to another. Some of the types of data entry jobs are:

  • Data Entry Clerk 

This type of job involves inputting of information which can be alphabetic or numeric, from one format to another and usually by keyboarding. 

  • Data Entry Keyer 

Data entry Keyer  enters or scans figures or data into computer software systems, often from other documents such as hard copies or paper documents. 

  • Transcriptionist 

Transcriptionist is a word-based job that involves listening to recordings and transcribing the information into reports or other word documents. 

  • Word Processor/Typist

The key duty of Typist is basic typing that includes entering information for text documents, correspondence and reports. 

Who are Data entry clerks? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

The Data entry clerks are valuable “behind the scenes” members of the corporate team who are responsible for inputting data from various sources into a database, ensuring that all necessary data are being entered and maintained accurately, thoroughly and timely.  The date entry clerks also must verify and edit data as needed. The data entry clerks also perform some general office tasks like scanning documents and answering phones.  

What does a Data Entry clerk do?

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

Data entry duties and responsibilities  are the most important part of the Data entry clerk  job description. These are  


  • Review, check and process invoices for payout 


  • Index invoices and file them in the appropriate places 


  • Identify unpaid invoices and notify the appropriate parties 


  • Disperse and monitor petty cash resources 


  • Evaluate and process expense reports from employees and executives 


  • Prepare checks for disbursement 


  • Maintain accurate and thorough vendor records 


  • Evaluate and approve POs 


  • Establish positive rapport with employees and vendors 


  • Fill in on AR side when needed 


 How can you become a Data Entry Clerk? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career 

In order to become a Data entry clerk, you have to have certain Data entry skills and qualifications. 

This may include education, previous job experience, certifications and technical and soft skills. You may also require certain personality traits to qualify for this job. Here are a few qualifications and skills that you may require. 

  • At least 3 years data entry experience  


  • High school diploma or Bachelor’s degree in accounting or finance 


  • 10-key (Numpad) speed of at least 8,000 KPH with minimal errors 


  • Ability to maintain confidentiality in financial matters 


  • Excellent Bookkeeping and organizational skills 


  • Comfortable with accepting and applying constructive criticism 


  • Advanced mathematical skills 


  • Strong computer skills 


  • Comfortable with office equipment like computers, scanners, calculator, telephone and photocopiers. 


  • Analytical thinking 


  • Strong attention to details. 


What courses are best for Data entry clerk 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career


Although data entry clerk positions do not require specific certifications, professionals can gain skills by enrolling in a Data entry certificate program at a technical school or college. 


Here are few of the courses related to Data entry which are also online. 


  • Data Entry Course for Beginners by Udemy 


  • Learn Data entry & launch a successful home-based business by Udemy 


  • R Programming – A Practical Approach by IIT Kanpur 


  • Excel for Everyone: Core Foundations 


  • Certificate Program in HR Analytics by Manipal Pro learn 


  • Microsoft Excel – Basic & Advanced 


  • Capstone: Analyzing (Social) Network Data by Coursera 


  • UI Design Patterns for Successful Software by Interaction Design Foundation 


  • Excel for Everyone: Core Foundations by  edx 


  • Microsoft Excel – Basic & Advanced by Go skills 


  • Domestic Data Entry Operator- Hindi by Skills India  


Scope of Data entry clerk 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

Data entry in India is a fast-growing industry. It is a preferred destination for IT and IT related business. 

Since India is an IT hub of the world and a preferred destination for IT and IT related business, there is a tremendous scope for Data entry clerks in India. Data plays a fundamental role in the IT sector and is a critical area that demands expertise of a Data entry clerk. Skilled data entry processes can streamline your business and help it move more seamlessly, saving time, money and giving you a competitive edge in the market. 

Data entry in India encompasses a broad range of services like basic data entry, data processing, data conversion, database entry, image entry, data entry online, based on survey, company reports, insurance claims etc. 

There are different data entry scenarios: 


  • Creation of data representation through manual data entry procedures 


  • Changing pattern of data from existing representatives 


  •  Identification of specific patterns of online data and extraction through automated processes 


  • Intelligent data entry – An approach towards the goal of understanding human thinking.  


  • Data entry online. 

What are the Benefits of Data Entry? 

The benefits of Data entry are given below: 


  • Data entry helps in the process of research & analysis 


  • Data entry helps in generating information from across the web 


  • Conversion of raw data into digital data is done through data entry. This digital data can be processes in various industrial sectors 


  • It helps in electronic word processing. 


  • Online data entry can be made use of in some cases for data retrieval. 


  • Data entry Facilitates data migration. A company can upgrade or make relevant changes to the data.


Where can you find jobs for Data entry clerks? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career


If you have great keyboarding skills and other qualifications as stated above data entry may be a solid career for you to consider. Data entry clerk jobs can take you into variety of industries as employers across many sectors hire for these positions. 

Industries that hire Data entry clerks 

  • Medical and Health

The employers include hospitals, medical centers and diagnostic labs and clinics. 

  • Administrative 

Data entry clerks can work in office Settings. They can also required to do other office jobs like answering phones or performing receptionist duties. 

  • Accounting and Finance 

Financial institutions also hire data entry clerks that deal with tax preparation, auditing, corporate finances, payroll and accounts payable. 

  • Government and Politics 

Local and state governments as well as the central government hire data entry clerks for public record keeping for elections.

  • Retail and Sales 

Inventory, online sales, collection and logistics all ply a major role in retail and sales. The employers in these industries hire for data entry jobs. 


Data entry jobs Websites

In case you are looking for a career as a Data entry clerk, here is the collection of data entry jobs sites where you can work and earn. Here is the best online job for Data entry for 2022: 

  • Mega Typers 

Mega Typers offers data entry services to private and governmental institutions. This website provides services such as Image-to-text recognition, transcription from voice to text and data entry.  

This website is most suitable for students, people in between jobs and parents that need supplementary income. You can earn around USD 250 per month and receive through Debit cards, PayPal Web Money, Ayza, and Western Union. 

  • Scribie 

Scribie offers translation, transcription and data entry services to businesses at affordable prices. If you are really interested in becoming a data entry professional, this transcription and data entry site is the right one. 

You can earn a decent amount of money here. But you must be fluent in English language.  

Your job responsibilities include audio files into text, verifying the transcript matches the audio, correctly identifying each speaker in the transcript and label them and correct spelling, punctuation, grammatical mistakes in the transcript.

  • Lion Bridge 

Lion bridge connects the experts from their respective fields with the brands and companies. To find jobs on Lionbridge you need to create your free account. You can browse data entry jobs, data annotation jobs, online translation jobs and many more. 

The website offers you flexible working hours, steady income, and jobs in over 300 languages from around the world. 

  • MTurk 

Amazon Mechanical Turk or MTurk is a crowdsourcing platform of Amazon and one of the top legit online data entry jobs’ sites. It is an internationally trusted brand that guarantees payment on time. It makes it easier for individuals and businesses to outsource their processes and connect through virtual jobs. 

You can find various online jobs such as data entry jobs, data processing and analysis jobs that you can complete from your home. 

  • Transcribe Me 

Transcribe Me is a platform that connects businesses with employees and vice-versa. If you are interested in online jobs such as data entry, data transcription, and data translation jobs Transcribe Me is a a right kind of place.

  • REV 

Rev is one of the top 10 data entry jobs sites that bridge the gap between skilled freelancers and customers. 

Rev is widely acclaimed by brands such as Forbes and The New York Times. It offers people freedom to work from home. You can work on schedule and get paid weekly. 

You can join as a freelancer and find hundreds of jobs in data entry, transcription, foreign subtitles and live captions for zoom. 

  • Fiverr 

Fiverr is yet another top 10 online data entry jobs sites for freelancers.

You have to create a freelancer account with your details. You need to regularly update your details so the employers and businesses can approach you for the work of data entry, and transcription jobs. 

  • Upwork 

In Upwork you can browse from more than 5838 remote data entry jobs sites. You need to create your free account and apply as a freelancer. 

Once you have created your profile, you can browse and apply from a pool of jobs available on the platform. 

  • is one of the top 10 data entry job sites in India with more than 15,170 data entry job openings. You can directly search your job through a keyword. 

You can check job details such a s your roles and responsibilities. You can check the company’s details, position, experience, location and skills required. 

  • Indeed 

Indeed is one of the best online data entry jobs websites with over 250 million per month visitors. This website is widely acclaimed by top recruiters worldwide. You can search for jobs using keywords and the location. 

  • Freelancer 

Freelancer is a platform that connects freelancers with businesses. You can find several online data entry jobs on freelancer within minutes using keywords. 

You can use advanced filters such as skills, languages to find your preferred jobs in just few clicks. 

  • Click worker 

Click worker is regarded as one of the best independent contractors’ platforms offering a wide range of services. 

Click worker also offers data entry services and provides data entry jobs to interested applicants. Thus, you can do data entry jobs along with other related jobs such as copy editing, proofreading and so on. 

What is the average salary of a Data entry clerk? 

In India the average  data entry clerk salary in India  is Rs 180,000 per year or Rs 92.31 per hour. At the entry level you can earn Rs 156,000 per year which can later increase to Rs 289,8000 per year as you gain experience. 

Here is the list of salary structures for data entry clerks based on sampling. 


Job Title  Salary 
Online Data Entry Job Data Entry salaries – 99 salaries reported  ₹17,500/mo. 
Fresher Data Entry salaries – 70 salaries reported  ₹15,552/mo. 
Freelancer Data Entry salaries – 56 salaries reported  ₹118/hr. 


What is the future for Data entry Clerks? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

As the economy continues to grow the demand for data entry clerks and other professionals will continue to rise. Data entry jobs can be found everywhere in part-time, freelance, temporary, and full-time roles across various fields.

Automation and Manual data entry has to coexist. Automation is spawning data entry and causing major technological disruption in this domain. According to a report published by Garner, the AI-derived value would reach 3.9 trillion dollars by 2022. 






Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

In the last article, I discussed with you how to start your Career in Meteorology which is a part of earth science. Today I am going to write about another part of earth science – Geology. Here I will discuss what is Geology and how you can start your career as Geologists.

What is Geology?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geology is the study of the earth in a scientific way where we study the Earth’s materials, what it is made of, and the processes that affect them over time. It includes the study of organisms on our planet. The main purpose of Geology is the find and understand the reasons for situations like climatic change to predict it better. It also includes the study of natural processes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, earthquakes.

Geology is a multidisciplinary science that uses principles of Physics, Chemistry, biology, and Mathematics to study the earth. The geology consists of sub-disciplines such as geoinformatics, mineralogy, volcanology, geomorphology, crystallography, gemology, oceanography, geophysics, geochemistry, and economic geology.

Today Geology has an international appeal as more and more students are interested in opting for this course. There are many educational institutions and universities that offer diplomas, degrees as well as online geology courses.

Types of Geology

There are two main types of Geology.

  • Physical Geology

Physical Geology deals with the study of the earth and the processes acting on them. This includes volcanoes, earthquakes, rocks, mountains, and the oceans and the processes acting on them.

  • Historical Geology

In Historical Geology, we study the history of the earth. It focuses on what happened to earth since its formation. Geologists also study the changes in life throughout time. In historical geology, one can travel back in time to the formation of the earth and move forward through time, witnessing the changes in earth itself and the life on it.

Who are the Geologists?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

A geologist is a scientist who studies the Earth, its material, and its evolution. They also study the organism inhabiting the earth. Geologists apply the working knowledge of various subjects of science such as physics, chemistry, maths, and biology for explaining the different phenomenon.  A Geologist locates the natural deposits of minerals underground, creates geology reports, maps, and interprets the researched data to the next level.

What do Geologists do?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geologists work to help us understand the history of our planet. This helps them foresee the events and processes of the past that might influence the future.

Geologists study earth processes such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, and volcanic eruptions that are catastrophic and can take thousands of lives. A geologist can help builders to build buildings and structures like Dams, Bridges in places where there is the least chance of them being damaged. They can help us to avoid building residential places by preparing maps that of areas that might be flooded in the future.

We use Earth materials like oil, metals, and water every day in our life. Geologists conduct studies that locate rocks that contain important metals, plan and construct the mines that produce them, and devise methods to remove them from rocks. Similarly, they work to locate and produce oil, natural gas, and groundwater.

Geologists work to learn about the past climates of Earth and how they have changed over time. The historical geological information helps us understand the status of our climate, how it is changing, and predict its effect in the future.

Geologists conduct surveys, construct maps, measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic field.

History of Geology

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.

  • It was in the 4th century BC, the Greek Scientist Aristotle made critical observations of the slow rate of geological change which cannot be observed during one person’s lifetime.
  • Aristotle’s successor Theophrastus made the greatest progress in his work on stones. He was able to describe many minerals and ores both from the local mines such as those in Laurium near Athens and further afield.
  • Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1048 AD) was one of the earliest Indian Muslim geologists who claimed in his writings that the Indian subcontinent was once a sea.
  • Ibn Sina (981-1037 AD) is a Persian polymath who made important contributions to geology, and natural science.
  • It was not until the 17th century that Geology made great strides in its development.
  • The Scottish Naturalist James Hutton(1726-1797) is known as the Father of Geology. He formulated geological principles based on the observation of rocks.
  • A New Theory of the Earth was published in 1696 by William Whiston where he tried to reason that the Great Flood had occurred and it formed the rock strata of the earth.
  • The Industrial Revolution and the development of the mining industry and stimulated the rapid development of the stratigraphic column stating that the sequence of rock formations arranged according to their order of formation in time.
  • The early 20th century saw the discovery of Radio Isotopes and the development of Radiometric dating. In 1911 Arthur Holmes used radioactive decay to measure geological time to date a sample from Ceylon at 1.6 billion years old using lead isotopes.
  • In 1912 Alfred Wegner proposed the theory of Continental drift which suggested that all continents were once a giant landmass known as Pangaea which later was separated and drifted apart to form continents in their present shape. The theory also offered a possible formation of mountains. He propounded The Theory of Tectonic Plates which is based on the idea that Earth is broken into tectonic plates and these plates move in response to seafloor spreading.
  • Some of the famous geologists of India are Darashaw Nosherwan(1883-1969), Khadg Singh Valdiya, Birbal Sahani(1891-1949), Rabi Naryan Naryan Bastia, Dasika Durga Prasada Rao, and Pramatha Nath Bose(1855-1934).
  • A more integrative approach in the late 20th century saw the study of geology using considering the earth in a broader context encompassing the atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. Satellites today can take wide-scope photographs of the earth.
  • In 1972 the Landsat Program a series of satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the US Geological Survey began supplying satellite images of earth that can be geologically analyzed. The program helped to produce geologically detailed maps, locate sources of natural energy and predict natural disasters by plate shifts. 


How can you become a Geologist?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geology is one of the core STEM subjects and a minimum bachelor’s degree is required for one to become a Geologist. The course is perfect for anyone who is interested in working on projects related to earth. This also includes exploration of minerals, protection of the environment, exploration of oil, managing resources, and many more.

A job as a Geologist at the entry-level varies depending on the type of employer but here are the general Skills, duties, and responsibilities for you to become a Geologist.

  • BSc in Geology or related field
  • Must have the ability to work or have experience in various industries such as mining, environment assessment, land development, and land redemption.
  • Ability to work outdoors in the field in different environmental conditions as well as in the office to complete reports and paperwork.
  • Ready to travel extensively for projects.
  • Knowledge of geology and geological factors for the location of the worksite.
  • Ability to work in a team and share geological data within the team.
  • Excellent verbal communication to interact with the management and team.
  • Ability to collect and analyze geological information, like water, soil, or rock.
  • Ability to write detailed reports accurately.
  • Must be highly technical to design mappings or graphical representations of information collected.
  • Must comply with all safety codes and standards.
  • Must be able to use specialized databases and software to complete work tasks.
  • He must be able to understand and abide by all center, state, or local laws and codes related to geological work.


At the managerial position, you will require the following skills and duties as a Geologist or senior Geologist. It may also include the following tasks that may require years of experience:

  • A Master’s degree or Ph.D. in geology and experience in the field of work.
  • Must be able to study the relationship between work projects and environmental impact and sustainability.
  • Must be well acquainted with the methods for geological analysis and data collection that provide the least environmental impact.
  • Must be able to manage sampling and reports from entry-level geologists and provide necessary feedback and recommendations
  • Must ensure work is conducted on time and project deadlines are being met
  • Must be able to present data using a variety of media to share results of investigations with stakeholders, clients, governments, or management
  • Must be able to update skills regularly to learn new and improved methods of geological work by attending workshops and courses
  • Must be able to manage and oversee contractors, such as drillers and excavators; Must be able to ensure health and safety compliance for workers
  • He must be able to manage budgets for geological projects and order materials required
  • He must attend meetings regularly with management to provide insight into work projects and receive pertinent information
  • Must be able to provide ongoing training to staff regarding investigations and data interpretation


Geology Courses abroad

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The best countries to study Geology are

  • The U.S.A.
  • Lebanon
  • Finland


Few of the international acclaimed colleges and universities that offer specialization in Geology are:

1. South New Hampshire University


Snhu offers an online program in BS in Environmental Science and MBA in Sustainability& Environmental Compliance


2. Arizona State University


ASU offers online courses like BS in Sustainability Programs.


3. University of Phoenix

 The programs it offers are BS in Environmental Science and BS in Business with a concentration in Environmental Sustainability.


 4. John Hopkins Krieger Schools of Arts & Science

The University offers Graduate Programs in Environmental Science, Energy Policy and Climate, and GIS. 


Geology Courses in India

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

In India, many universities and colleges offer undergraduate, Postgraduate, and Doctorate degrees in Geology. One can pursue the given courses to make his career as Geologist.

  • Undergraduate Courses

Here are the UG courses:

  • Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Geology, Earth science, and Environmental science
  • Bachelor of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in Geology, Earth Science and Environmental Science 
  • Postgraduate Courses

It is a two-year duration course.

  • Master of Science (M.Sc) in Geology and  Applied Geology
  • Master of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Master of Technology in Geology and Applied Geology  
  • Doctoral Courses

Ph.D. in Geology

   Specializations in Geology

  • Economic Geology
  • Geochemistry
  • Marine Geology
  • Engineering geology
  • Structural geology
  • Volcanology
  • Mineralogy
  • Geomorphology

What are the Best colleges to study Geology in India?

Here are a few of the Best colleges in India for you to pursue your specialization in Geology.

Here are the courses offered by institutions for anyone aspiring to become a geologist.

For Graduation
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Kharagpur
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Dhanbad
  • Hans Raj College – [HRC], New Delhi
  • Annamalai University, Chidambaram
  • St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai
  • Aligarh Muslim University – [AMU], Aligarh
  • Fergusson College, Pune
  • Presidency College, Chennai
  • Jadavpur University, Kolkata
  • Bihar National College, Patna 
For Post Graduation
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Kharagpur
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Roorkee
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Mumbai
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Dhanbad
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Bhubaneswar
  • Hans Raj College – [HRC], New Delhi
  • Anna University, Chennai
  • Annamalai University, Chidambaram
  • St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai
  • Banaras Hindu University – [BHU], Varanasi


What is the Best Entrance exam for Geology in India?

Here are the entrance exams that you have to clear to get yourself a degree in Geology.

For Graduation
  • Joint Entrance Examination Main-JEE MAIN
  • Joint Entrance Examination Advanced-JEE ADVANCED
  • Common Entrance Test -CET
For Post Graduation
  • Graduate Aptitude Test of Engineering-GATE
  • Osmania University Common Entrance Test-OUCET
  • Sri Venkateswara University Common Entrance Test-SVUCET
  • Indian School of Mines Entrance Exam-ISM EE
  • Banaras Hindu Postgraduate Entrance Examination-BHU PET


Course Fees and Duration

The average cost for any course in Geology ranges between Rs10,000 to Rs 2 lacs. The cost varies from one college to another.

Course Duration Fees(annual)
Diploma in Geology 1 year Differs with the institution you are opting to pursue the course
Bachelor’s degree in Geology(B.Sc) 3 years Rs 10,000- 1 lakh
Master’s degree in Geology(M.Sc.) 2 years Rs 30,000- 1 lakh
Doctorate in Geology (Ph.D) 3 years Rs 1 lakh- 2 lakh


The Scope in Geology

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Most geologists work in Industry. They work in engineering and consulting firms, government agencies, mining companies, groundwater agencies, petroleum companies, museums, etc. Others work in higher education such as universities as lecturers, or in research in university labs and departments.

Where do Geologists work?

Here are some of the many occupations where a geology degree is beneficial.

  • Astrogeologists or planetary geologists
  • Engineering geologists
  • Environmental consultant
  • Environmental geologists
  • Geochemist
  • Geological surveyor
  • Geology professor
  • Geomorphologist
  • Geophysicist
  • Gemologist
  • Glacial geologist
  • High school science teacher
  • Hydrogeologist
  • Mineralogist


In India, the following is the list of organizations both national and international where geologists are employed:

  • Geologists Survey of India(GSI)
  • Central Ground Water Board(CGWB)
  • Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)
  • Directorate of Geology and Mining (DGM)
  • Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM)
  • Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
  • National Geophysical Institute (NGRI)
  • Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun
  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)
  • Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC)
  • National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC)
  • National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
  • Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation (MMTC)
  • National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA)
  • State Mining Corporation (SMC)
  • Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)
  • National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC)
  • Hindustan Zinc Limited
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
  • Tehri Hydro Development Corporation (THDC)
  • Mineral Exploration Authority Private sector companies
  • Hindustan Copper Limited
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
  • National Minerals Development Corporation
  • Steel Authority of India Limited.
  • Kudremukh Iron ore company


What is Geologists’s average salary?

The pay scale of Geologists depends on where he opts to work. Since there is a shortage of jobs in geology there has been a dramatic rise in the salary in the last few years.

The Median salary in the US for geologists was $93,580 in May 2020. The highest payer is the oil and gas industry with a median salary of $125,670 followed by the federal government with a median salary of $104,210.

In India, the starting salary of the Geologists ranges between Rs 2.5 lacs to Rs 3.5 lacs per annum in both the private and public sectors. In the government, the geologists can earn a salary package of approx. Rs 9.5 lacs.


Are Geologists in Demand in the Future?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The field of geology and related sciences is expected to grow at a phenomenal rate in the next few years. So in case you are interested in becoming a geologist you are looking forward to a solid career.

The demand for Geologists in the US is expected to grow to 11,400 over the next 10 years.

Despite the downturn in the mineral resources sector, there is a positive outlook for geologists in long term. In fact, the demand for geologists exceeds the supply. The demand in the field is cyclical and mirrors the price of geological commodities such as fuels, metals, and construction materials.






Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Most of us would consider a Meteorologist as a person that studies Meteors falling from the sky. However, this is not so. Meteorology is defined as  the study of Earth’s atmosphere 

For centuries we have studied the effect of the atmosphere and collected the data for various purposes like in agriculture, military defense, and planning, and to develop early warning systems to reduce its adverse impact on coastal areas due to tornadoes and cyclones.

We must have sufficient interests and educational standards to make a career in Meteorology. All this will be discussed in this article

Meteorology and Meteorologist

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

There are five branches of Earth Science. These are ;

  • Geology
  • Meteorology
  • Climatology
  • Oceanography
  • Environmental Science 

Meteorology is defined as a branch of Earth Science that deals with the study of Earth’s atmosphere. It mainly focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Meteorology includes the study of both weather and climate that are concerned with the physical, dynamical, and chemical state of the earth’s atmosphere and interactions and Earth’s space. 

Meteorologists are the scientists who study Meteorology. The American Meteorological Society defines a Meteorologist as an Individual with specialized education who uses scientific principles to explain, understand, observe and forecast the earth’s atmospheric phenomena and/or how the atmosphere affects the earth and life on the planet. Meteorologist 

Meteorologists use various Meteorological instruments to study the earth’s atmosphere like satellites, weather balloons, radar, sensors, and weather stations.

Difference between Meteorology  and  Climatology

Whereas Meteorologist is concerned with the current state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, Climatologist studies climate that is concerned for the long-term weather conditions and trends for the given locations.

Climatology can be looked at as the historical record of weather conditions for a location while meteorology gives the current daily news stories of the weather for that same location. To put it more simply, Climatology is like reading a history book and meteorology is more like reading a news article.

 The History of Meteorology

The ability to predict annual cycles of rains and floods has been used by humans since the start of the agriculture settlement.

The origin of the word Meteorology is derived from the ancient Greek word Meteoron which means something that happens high in the sky. The ancient Greeks observed and tried to understand the connection between clouds, winds, and rains.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote a book called Meteologica as early as 340 B.C.E. which provided all the information on weather and climate. Aristotle is regarded as the founder of Meteorology.

In India, the Upanishads mention clouds and rain. In the Samveda there is a mention of sacrifices to be performed to please Gods if there is no rain. In his classic book Brihat Samhita,  Varahamihira provides evidence of weather observation. The book was written in 500 AD.

From 1801 to 1841,  Luke Howard did comprehensive recordings of weather forecasts in London and his writing transformed the science of Meteorology. He is regarded as the Father of Meteorology.

How to Become a Meteorologist?

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Meteorology is a difficult subject and being a Meteorologist is a difficult job. You must be strong in maths, science, and computer.

What Skills are needed to become a Meteorologist?

 Here are a few of the basic skills that you require to become a Meteorologist.

  • Good communication skills.
  • Strong Analytical Skills
  • Practical details
  • Ability to work in details
  • Computer skills
  • Strong Interpretative skills
  • Accuracy
  • Patience
  • Power of Observation

Education Profile of a Meteorologist

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

You must have a Meteorology degree if you want to become a Meteorologist.

You must pass your higher secondary in science with a good percentage. Then you must complete your graduation ( BSc or B.Tech) in Meteorology. In case you are a Science graduate in another stream but want to get a degree in Meteorology they can join a two years Master’s degree program in Meteorology which is for two years.

Students who are interested in doing research and development in Meteorology can complete their Ph.D. degree in Meteorology after their Master’s degree..

Here are the subjects in which you should graduate other than meteorology and go for Post Graduation:

  • Physics
  • Maths
  • Environmental Studies
  • Geography
  • Computer Science

Branches of Meteorologist

  • Atmospheric Chemistry
  • Atmospheric Physics
  • Numerical weather prediction and modeling
  • Tropical and oceanographic meteorology
  • Aviation
  • Hazards

How much does a Meteorology degree cost in India?

The meteorology course fees vary upon a number of factors like the University and the purpose of the course.

 The BSc course which takes three years to be completed will cost you Rs 27,000 in a government college. But the same course may cost you between Rs 80,000 to Rs 1.5 lacs per year in a private university.

In case you want to do a B.Tech course which is a four years course, you will have to pay Rs 10 lacs to Rs 15 lacs for the course.

To pursue a Ph.D. in Meteorology which is a two years program, the cost of the course varies between Rs 80,000 to Rs 300,000. 

Where can you study Meteorology?

Here are a few of the Best meteorology schools/ colleges in the world where you can get your degree in Meteorology:

  • Princeton University
  • Columbia University
  • Harvard University
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Yale University
  • Stanford University
  • University of Chicago
  • University of Pennsylvania

Top colleges of Meteorology in India

In India, there are only a few colleges and universities that offer a course in Meteorology. Most of the colleges are regulated by the government as the students can get jobs in the government and public sector only. Here are a few of the colleges and universities in India offering a course in Meteorology.  


College Rank Name of the College/University Course Type Course Fees per annum
1 Andhra University MSc 1.5 lacs
2 Cochin University of Science and Technology M.Tech 1.6lakhs
3 IIT, Delhi

IIT, Kharagpur

M.Tech 1.6 lacs
4 Savitri Phule University M.Tech


1.7 lacs 

1 lacs

5 Orissa Institute of Agriculture and Technology M.Tech 1.7 lacs
6 Shivaji University B.Sc 2 lacs
7 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology(IITM), Pune M.Tech 1.7 lacs


The Scope of Meteorology

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Few people opt for a career in Meteorology as it is a rare field of science. However, a career in Meteorology has its own charm and is highly rewarding.

As a Meteorologist, you will find yourself working on air transportation, Global Warming, Pollution control, Ozone depletion, droughts, forestry, agriculture, and more. The introduction of powerful computers and supercomputers which help him run complex weather simulations and predict the weather.

Meteorologists have a high demand in the government sector. But some private companies also recruit them, especially for environmental control. In the Government sector, they are recruited in different organizations like space research and development, Defence research and development, weather forecasting, and mining departments.

Since the Meteorologist’s job Description and responsibilities are diverse the profession can be divided into four main categories. These categories are

  • Industrial Meteorologist
  • Physical Meteorologist
  • Research Meteorologist
  • Meteorologist Professor and Teacher

Industrial and Physical  Meteorologists perform their jobs flexibly. The professionals have to perform their duties both indoor and outdoor. They have to work for long hour durations as they have to collect data on weather forecasts. In fact, most of the meteorological departments are 24 hours functional and the meteorologist has to work under high pressure which makes their job even more challenging.

Here are a few of the government institutes/organizations in India where meteorologists are recruited.

  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorologists.
  • India Meteorology Department
  • Indian Air Force
  • Space Application Center
  • National Remote Sensing Agency
  • Defense Research and Development Organization
  • Indian Space Research Organization

Various Career Paths for  Meteorologist

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Here are a few of the career fields for Meteorologists. 

   1. Weather Forecasting and Warning

Weather Forecasting has been the core aspect of Meteorology and has attracted a lot of young talent in this profession. Weather forecasting involves people from different countries because the system that brings us our weather is hundreds of miles in extent and moves over huge regions of the earth’s surface as they grow and change. The weather forecast that we see on our television is the end product of the worldwide effort by thousand of meteorologists in the national weather service of many nations.   

  2. Atmospheric Research

  Atmospheric research is done to seek answers to questions about our   

           understanding of the atmosphere, it’s working, and its impact on us

           For example, the threat of global warming is assessed by meteorologists who 

           collect data and analyze them on worldwide temperature trends. Similarly 

           Research Meteorologists work with Biologists to study how plants and 

           animals interact with our atmosphere. 


     3. Meteorological Technology Development and support

Various companies design, manufacture and market the instrumentation to measure the data for the atmosphere. These instruments range from simple rain gauges to computerized self-contained automated weather observing stations. These companies also design and build weather satellites and Doppler radars.

      4. Information Services

Information services are services given to many non-meteorological customers who need tailored products and information to meet their needs. These information services include acquiring raw meteorological data pertinent to individual customers, creating easily understood displays of critical weather information,, and preparing forecast model output in a format that a layman can easily understand. Meteorologists in this area also help planners and contractors to locate and design airports, factories, and many other construction projects. They also provide climatological information for heating and air-conditioning engineers.

        5. Forensic Services

           Sometimes weather conditions have an impact on legal cases. Forensic 

           meteorologists are often required to reconstruct weather conditions that were 

           occurring at the time of the event. Sometimes forensic meteorologists are 

           called to testify as expert witnesses in court cases in case it involves the 

           weather. The forensic meteorologist will retrieve and analyze weather 

           information and reconstruct the weather conditions for the location in 


         6.  Broadcast Meteorology

           Media Weather forecasting for radio, television, and newspapers is a high-profile career. It is the responsibility of Broadcast Meteorologists for gathering 

          data, create a forecast, and then develop the graphical representation of 

          their weather analysis for television. Occasionally broadcast meteorologists 

          are often asked to act as environmental reporters, generating stories on a 

          variety of earth topics.

          7. Teaching

Since there is growing awareness of meteorology today there is an increasing demand for lecturers and professors at the university level. Many university atmospheric scientists direct research that graduate students are performing to earn their degrees. You must have good preparation and training in Meteorology for a career as a science teacher at any level.

        8. Aviation Meteorology

            Aviation Meteorology studies the impact of weather on air traffic  

            management. The aviation meteorologist helps and guides the flight crew in 

           understanding the implication of then weather on their flight plan and make 

           decision accordingly.

           9. Agricultural Meteorology.

              Agriculture Meteorologist helps oil scientists, agricultural hydrologists and 

             agronomists in understanding the effects of weather and climate on plant 


           10. Hydro-meteorologist

               Hydro-Meteorologist studies the hydro-logic cycle, the water budget, and 

           rain statistics of storms. He prepares and issues forecasts of accumulating   

            precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and areas with the potential for flash 


            11. Nuclear Meteorology

                Nuclear Meteorology investigates the effect of nuclear arsenal and gases in 

             the  Atmosphere.

            12. Maritime Meteorology

               Maritime meteorologists study the effect of weather on the sea and issue air 

            and wave forecasts for ships operating in the sea. 

Salary of Meteorologist

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, there is tremendous scope for Meteorology. The growth rate in this field is predicted to be 12% from 2016 to 2026 which is faster than the average for all occupations. The Meteorology jobs in the USA in 2021 come with a high median salary between 77,877 USD and 125,172 USD per annum.

Meteorologist Salary in India

The Indian Government offers Meteorologist scientists a lucrative salary that varies between Rs 10,000 to Rs 25,000 per month.

The Entry-level Meteorologist salary in India is Rs 25,000 to Rs 30,000 per month if you are working in Agriculture research and development center. The Meteorologist professional with added expertise and experience can get a salary up to Rs 60000 to 150,000 per month in a defense research and development center.

In the Space research and development center sector, most senior Meteorologists are offered a salary of up to Rs 250,000 per month.  

Here is the table that shows the salary of a Meteorologist according to their seniority level in different organizations in India.


Organisation Salary of Junior Scientists Salary of Executive Scientists Salary of Senior Scientists
Meteorological Research Centre 40,000 rupees/month 50,000-70,000 rupees/month 80,000-100,000 rupees/month
Agricultural Planning  Divisions 25,000-35,000 rupees/month 45,000 rupees/month 65000 rupees/month
Weather Consulting Organisations 35,000-55,000 rupees/month 60,000-70,000 rupees/month 80,000-1.5 lakh rupees/month
Air Force 45,000-60,000 rupees/month 65,000 rupees/month 100000 rupees/month


The Future Growth Prospects of Meteorology

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Since now both the Government and private organizations are recruiting Meteorologists there is tremendous scope for these scientists. They are hired in DRDO, ISRO, and  NABARD. They are hired by private recruiters like Reliance, Mahindra, and TATA. As more and more private companies are coming to this sector there is an increase in the demand for professionally qualified Meteorologists in India. However, to achieve faster growth in their professional career, Meteorologists have to attain higher education to enhance their professional capabilities.


Chemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Career

For all the students who want to choose Chemists as their career path, Chemistry is fundamental to them. We all are essentially chemists as everything around us has a chemical context. When we breathe, we light a match or boil milk we perform a chemical reaction. Our body is home to a number of chemical processes taking place inside it.

What is Chemistry?


Chemistry along with Physics, Biology, and Maths is known as  Central Science.It is the study of the nature of chemical processes and chemicals within the realm of biological and physical phenomenon. Chemistry helps us understand the universe we live in and its composition.

Here are a few branches of chemistry that can specialize:

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • BioChemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Forensic Chemistry
  • Applied Chemistry

Who are the Chemists?

Chemists 2021- A Guide to an ImpactChemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Careerful and exciting Career

Why do our chocolate, Jam or Butter taste so delicious? The chemist makes them like that. The food preservatives that help these foods to last for more than a year are created by chemists. The deodorants and scents that we are using are created by chemists.

The medicines we eat have chemistry in it created by chemists.

Thus the Chemists transform ordinary stuff into extraordinary.

What does a chemist do?

A Chemist is a person who works in applied research as well as basic research. A chemist is a scientist researching chemical substances, performing experiments on chemical substances, measuring their effect on different situations. They study inter-chemical reactions.

A chemist mostly works in a laboratory. He maintains and troubleshoots various equipment, instruments, and software tools utilized for chemical analysis and processing.

The chemists are responsible for interpreting and analyzing data and equipment logs from other laboratory members. I required the chemist must show an aptitude for experimental design. The chemists also collect and document quality assurance test data.

The chemists must also be able to follow directions exactly as well as suggest improvements to improve on experiments or processes.

Skills required to become Chemist

To become a chemist you require certain basic skills. These skills can be developed by you when you complete your degree course in chemistry. Here are a few of the skills that are required by chemists.

  • Scientific and Numerical skills
  • Curiosity
  • Attention to detail
  • Patience
  • Determination
  • Research and presentation skills
  • Analytical skills
  • Written and oral communication
  • Information Technology
  • Ability to maintain and monitor data/records
  • Teamwork
  • Organizational skills

How can you become  Chemists?

Chemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Career

To pursue a career in chemistry you must first take science in your 10+2.

After completing your higher secondary in science, you must take a bachelor’s degree in chemistry. The duration is of three years. In case you want to get a bachelor’s degree in engineering, you will have to study for four years. A bachelor’s degree provides you with solid background and information about chemistry and related fields.

In case you want to study further, you can take a Master’s degree in chemistry. The eligibility criteria to get a Master’s degree is that you have passed your bachelor’s in chemistry with s minimum percentage. The duration of the master’s program is for two years. A master’s degree can lead to excellent career prospects like analytical chemists, engineers, healthcare scientists, and toxicologists which are highly paid. Also, you will be prepared for leadership and management in the industry.

Here are a few of the options for those who have cleared their bachelor’s in chemistry and want to pursue their post-graduation in chemistry.

  • Masters in Chemical Engineering
  • Masters of Science in Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Analytical Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Drug Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Physical & Materials Chemistry
  • Doctorate/Ph.D. in Chemistry

Here are a few of the Top Colleges in India which are offering Bachelors’s and Master’s degrees in chemistry.

  • Xavier’s College
  • Stephan’s College
  • Presidency College
  • Jamia Hamdard University, Delhi
  • Loyola College, Chennai
  • Fergusson College, Pune
  • Hans Raj College, Delhi
  • Institute of Chemical Technology
  • Sri Venkateswara College, New Delhi

Here are a few of the top chemical engineering universities in India

  • Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT Kanpur)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IIT KGP)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT Roorkee)
  • Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS-Pilani)
  • Indian Institute of Technology – Banaras Hindu University (IIT-BHU
  • National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli
  • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Guwahati)

A 3 year BSc degree from any of the above institutes in India will cost you between Rs60,000 to Rs500,000. A 4-year Engineering degree with a specialization in chemistry will cost Rs2,00,000 to Rs5,00,000.

In case you want to study abroad or go for your master’s degree, it will cost you around Rs15,00,000 to Rs 40,00,000 from any of the top universities.

Why become a Chemist? 

Chemists 2021- A Guide to an ImpactfChemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Careerul and exciting Career

Every graduate in chemistry, especially those with professional degrees would like to have a decent job in their hand after completing their graduation. There is a perception among the chemistry professionals that the top jobs are reserved for those with advanced degrees.

Chemistry graduates are high in demand and are successful from the early start in their careers. They have ample opportunities. The average growth rate of the Chemical Industry is about 6% in 2020 and is expected to continue at the same pace till 2030.

However, in India, there is not much awareness about a career in chemistry. Almost one-third of chemistry graduates work in a traditional lab. You can find a number of opportunities in petroleum companies working in their research laboratories. As a biochemist, you can widen your scope by availing conservation, environmental and medical opportunities.

Here are a few of the career paths that a chemistry professional can pursue.

Research & Development

  • Research and Product Development
  • Cheminformatics
  • Engineering and Technology
  • Crystallography
  • Pigments, Inks, and Dyes
  • Laboratory, Project and Industrial Management
  • Management
  • Project Management

Quality Control/Regulatory

  • Toxicology
  • Safety and Health
  • Toxic or Hazardous Waste Management
  • Quality Assurance or control


  • Information Management Specialist
  • Human Resources
  • Public Information
  • Support and Communication
  • Technical Communication


  • Technical Sales and Marketing


  • Process and Formulation Chemistry

Law and Policy

  • Law
  • Public Information
  • Regulation of Affairs
  • Policy
  • Social Impact

Military & Law Enforcement

  • Military Science & Technology
  • Forensic Science

Higher Education

  • Professional Staff
  • Basic Research
  • Cheminformatics
  • Professor
  • Information Management

Chemists Job Profiles

Here are a few of the job profiles for you after you pass out as a chemistry professional:

  1. Analytical Chemists

An Analytical chemist analyses the chemical composition of different substances such as food. Medicines and other products.

  1. Forensic Expert

The job of a Forensic expert is to collect, preserve and examine materials found at the crime scenes.

  1. Chemical informatics Data Scientists 

Chemical Informatics makes use of computer and information science techniques to store, index, and retrieve details about chemical compounds.

  1. Crystallographer

The job of the crystallographer is to study the molecular and atomic structure of crystals using different techniques like X-ray and microscopic imaging.

  1. Chemical Engineer

The job of the chemical engineer is to design the process of new products from other raw materials like the production of plastics, cosmetics, and raw materials.

  1. Industrial Management

The role of the Industrial manager is to handle projects and oversee production activities.

  1. Chemical health and safety professional  

These professionals advise companies on the best practices to ensure the safety of employees, property, and surroundings.

  1. Quality Assurance Officer

These chemists ensure that the product manufacturing and maintenance standards are of the company’s standards and free of errors.

  1. Regulatory Affairs Pharmacists

The role of regulatory affairs pharmacists is to regulate the guidelines on clinical trials and research.

  1. Toxicologists

Toxicologists are the chemists responsible for studying the effect of chemicals, drugs, and other agents on living organisms.

  1. Quality Controllers

Quality Controller evaluates the finished products and ensures that they meet the company’s standards.

  1.  Formulation Chemists

The formulation chemists know the art of mixing non-reactive materials to produce the desired product.

 13 Hazardous Waste Management chemists

These chemists are responsible for coming up with ways to reduce the pollutants and their harmful effects.

  1. Textile Chemists 

The Textile chemist makes use of his knowledge of chemistry to manufacture textiles like the clothes we wear.

  1. Pharmacologists

Pharmacologists study the effects of drugs on your body. They help in developing those drugs that are more efficient and safe for us.

  1. Professor

Teaching chemistry in colleges is a popular profession. A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or more can help you become a professor in chemistry.

  1. Technical Support Professional

A Technical support professional provides technical support and servicing of the lab instruments.

  1. . Process Chemistry

The process chemists identify the problems in scaling up the production of chemical products to a commercial level and also fix issues.

  1.  Laboratory Technician

Laboratory Technician supports the team in inventory, servicing lab equipment, and ensuring all standards and protocols are maintained in the laboratory.


The average salary of a chemist

At an entry-level i.e. with one year of experience, a chemist can earn about Rs 221,764 per annum in India. At his mid-career level with around 5-9 years of experience, a chemist can earn about Rs 350 000 lacs per annum. As an experienced chemist with 10-19 years of experience, you can be expected to earn Rs 5.5 lacs per annum and with above 20 years of experience, you can earn about Rs1,200,000 per annum. Lab Chemist salary in India ranges between ₹ 0.5 Lakhs to ₹ 6.0 Lakhs with an average annual salary of ₹ 2.5 Lakhs.

The average annual salary of a chemist in the USA is $83,850.

Your Employers as a chemist

The main employers of chemists   are in the chemical and related industries such as

  • Agrochemicals
  • Metallurgical
  • Petrochemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Plastics and Polymers
  • Toiletries

You can get employment in other sectors also notably in Food and Drink Industries, utility and research, Health and Medical organizations, the government, and scientific research organizations and agencies.


Despite the fact that the career in chemistry in India is little known there is an increasing demand for chemists due to the high industrial growth in the chemical and related industries. Chemical engineers and graduates are now highly in demand, especially in international companies.

If you are really interested in taking a career in chemistry and overlook the expenses in becoming one, you have the whole world at your door knocking for every opportunity you can get.


Chef Jobs 2021– Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Chef Jobs are the jobs meant for those working in Hotels and restaurants. We all love to dine outside in a restaurant. It is one of the better things in our life. We go with our friends, with our family or take our girlfriend on a date. In fact, restaurants are one of the favorite places outside for all of us.

But none of us have ever cared to know the men behind such a delicious meal. The gourmet’s delight. We come to the same restaurant again and again for the same food. We praise it while giving our feedback. Yet none of us have ever seen the man who cooked such a delicious meal for us.

These men are called the Chefs.

Who Are the Chefs?

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

All the activities related to the kitchen are handled by a professional culinarian known as the Chef. Chef Jobs includes managing the staff to deciding the weekly menu and preparing good quality food. It also includes hygiene in the kitchen.  

Chef Jobs 

Here are the roles and responsibilities of the chef in the kitchen.

  • Supervision

The chef is responsible for supervising staff during food preparation and presentation.He instructs and guides his staff.

  • Menu Planning

The menu planning is done by the chef to attract the customers. He instructs the staff on how to plan and prepare the menu. 

  • Managing the record

It is the responsibility of chefs to keep a record of all the ingredients required in the preparation of the food.

  • Managing Staff

The chefs are responsible for hiring and managing the staff. He delegates the task to the staff and sees that they implement his instructions properly.

  • Maintaining the quality of food

It is the responsibility of the chef to maintain good food quality. He has to check the quality of the ingredients used when the dish is being prepared. He has the authority to approve or reject a dish after checking its taste.

  • Hygiene in Kitchen

A chef monitors the sanitary practices in the kitchen and ensures that all the staff present in the kitchen fools them.

  • Budgeting

The chef coordinates the planning, budgeting, and or purchasing of all food items in the hotel or restaurants.

  • Food Presentation

The chef is responsible for how to present the food to the customers and create decorative displays.


   The Chefs are the King of the Kitchen. The whole reputation of a hotel, restaurant, or any eating joint big or small is dependent on the quality of Chef it has. 

Types of Culinary Arts

It is important for one to be aware of various types of culinary art in case he wants to pursue a career as a chef.

  • Commis Chef Jobs

Commis Chef is an assistant cook that helps the main chef to prepare food.

  • Chef de Partie Jobs

Chef de partie also called line chef or Station chef oversees a section of the kitchen with many chefs working under him in a particular area of production like pastry, butchery, vegetables, etc.

  • Pastry Chef Jobs

The Pastry Chef creates pastry, pies, and cakes. He decorates them and then presents deserts to the customers in an engaging manner.

  • Bakers Chef Jobs 

Bakers Chef are the chefs who have expertise in creating baked food.

  • Saucier or Saute Chef Jobs

Saucier or Saute Chef specializes in the process of procurement to delivery of Sauces. They also prepare soups and gravy for a particular dish.

  • Sous Chef Jobs

The Sous Chef is second in command directly working under the head chef. He is responsible for executing the planning as per instructions.

  • Chef de Cuisine Jobs or Head Chef Jobs

Chef de Cuisine is the master of the kitchen. He is also called the Head Chef. He plans the menu, chooses the ingredients, selects and inspects the cooking materials.

What is Culinary Art?

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Culinary art is the talent for cooking required in the chef job..A Culinary artist is the one who studies recipes and prepares high-quality dishes.

Culinary art includes baking, preparing food, supervising the kitchen, presentation of the food on the plate.

In case you have the talent and inclination for cooking, then Culinary Career is the right career option for you. This is an ideal profession for those who want to work in the food and beverage industry.

The one who masters the culinary art is known as the Culinarian, Culinary artist, or Chefs.

A few of the well-known professionals in the world of culinary art are Gordon James, Jamie Oliver, Wolfgang Puck, Sanjeev Kapoor, and Marco Pierre White.

A brief History of Culinary arts

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art
Boston Cooking School

The History of Culinary art might have begun about 2 million years ago when the first meal was cooked on the fire.

With the evolution of man the culinary techniques improved. The introduction of earthenware and stoneware, the domestication of livestock, and advancement in agriculture led to the advancement in culinary art techniques.

The chefs evolved into professional chefs from just being home-based chefs.

They were employed in the royal kitchen of kings and aristocrats. The wealthy employed them.

The end of the Monarchy in most parts of the world led to the employment of chefs in hotels and inns. Now the culinary art developed into a separate field of study.

The world’s first cooking institution was founded in 1879, in the United States, The Boston Cooking School. The standardization of cooking practices took place in this institution and laid the groundwork for the culinary art schools.

It was in 1929, that the American Culinary Federation was founded with the mission to educate students through apprenticeship and certifications. It became an assemblage of the United States Chef club. The second culinary school, Johnson & Wales University, opened its College of Culinary Arts in 1973.

The Cuisine from the Indian subcontinent consisted of cuisine that is rich and diverse. India’s diverse climate ranging from deep tropical to alpine also helped broaden the set of ingredients readily available to the many schools of culinary arts in the country..

Today we have different cuisine from all 29 states in India with their unique taste and flavor.. A few of the famous Indian cuisines are Kashmiri cuisine, Punjabi cuisine, Rajasthani cuisine, Bengali cuisine, Kerala cuisine, Maharashtrian cuisine, Goan cuisine, Hyderabadi cuisine, Gujarati cuisine, and many more.

How can you become a Chef?

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art


In order to pursue a career as chef you must possess or acquire certain specific skills. With training from reputed institutions in Hotel management and catering technology, a chef can exhibit the right skills in a successful manner and get successful placements in good hotels and restaurants.

Skills for becoming a chef

  • Physical Strength

A chef has to undergo a lot of physical stress as he has to stand in the kitchen for hours. He has to focus on cooking and work under pressure.

  • Dexterity

A chef has to show both physical and mental dexterity as there has to be a continuous movement both in his arms and fingers while doing his work as well as he has to think smoothly sometimes outside the box and must have a strong presence of mind.

  • Time Management

As a chef, you will be under constant pressure to deliver in a short time. You must be able to prepare, present and deliver dishes to your customers in a short span of time.

  • Leadership

You must be able to exhibit strong leadership and organizational skills while managing the staff working under you. A chef must be able to delegate responsibilities, give proper instruction and supervise his staff.

  • Teamwork

As a chef, you must be able to work in a team. You must be able to communicate and coordinate effectively with your teammates in the kitchen.

  • Patience and Resilience

A chef must exhibit both patience and resilience while preparing food, especially during rush hour.

Key skills required for Culinary Arts

  • Cooking and Baking arts
  • Garnishing
  • Knife skills
  • Food Carving
  • Plate Presentation
  • Food Photography
  • Restaurant Management

A Step by Step guide to becoming Chef

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Step 1:Complete your Post Secondary school (10+2) with a minimum of 50% in any stream.

Step 2:Get a Diploma or Degree in Culinary Arts.

  • You can get a Diploma in Culinary arts which may be from one and a half years to two and a half years.
  • You can get a BA in Culinary art for three to four years. In case you want to go further, you can go for a postgraduate degree in Culinary Arts.

Entrance Exams for Graduation in Culinary Arts

Here are a few of the best  entrance exams for culinary arts which you should take to become a chef: 

  1. Maharashtra Common Entrance Test-MH CET 2021·  
  2. Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Exam-UPSEE 2021
  3.  National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology Joint Entrance Examination-NCHMCT JEE 2021
  4. All India Management Association Under Graduate Aptitude Test-AIMA UGAT 2021
  6. Quantum University Entrance Test-Q Care 2021
  7. Vels Entrance Examination-VEE 2021·  
  8. Siksha O Anusandhan University Admission Test-SAAT 2021
  9. Electronic Common Hospitality Aptitude Test-IIHM ECHAT 2021
  10. Army Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology WAT-AIHMCT WAT 2021

Here are the courses in culinary arts. The eligibility criteria to take these courses vary from college to college:

Culinary art Courses Culinary arts tuition fees(INR)
Bachelor of Hotel Management and Catering Technology Rs 40,000 to 3 lacs
BA in culinary arts Rs 65,000 to 3 lacs
BSC in culinary arts Rs 10,000 to 3Lacs
Bachelor in catering technology & culinary arts Rs30,000 to Rs2,60,000
PGD in culinary arts Rs 60,000 to 3 lacs


 Step 3:Get practical exposure through Internship/Apprenticeship

  • You have to do an internship or work as an apprenticeship in a restaurant’s specialized department. This practical exposure will help you gain professional contacts and work with other colleagues. This will also sharpen your knowledge and skill.    

 Step 4: Get Certification as Chef

  •  Like any professional Education, you must get a certificate once you complete your formal education in culinary arts.

Best  Culinary Art Schools in India

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Here are a few of the best colleges of culinary art  in India to pursue a career as Chef

For Graduation

  • IHM, Aurangabad
  • IHM Meerut
  • The Oberois
  • Culinary Academy of India(CAI), Hyderabad
  • Indian Institute of Catering Technology and Hotel Management(IIHMCA), Hyderabad
  • Allied Institute of Hotel Management and Culinary Arts(AIHMCA)
  • Goa College of Hospitality and Culinary Education, North Goa
  • Hotel and Catering Management Institute.
  • Welcome Graduate School of Hotel Management, Manipal University, Manipal
  • Chandigarh Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Chandigarh  

For Post Graduation

  •   Institute of Hotel Management Taj, Aurangabad
  •   Institute of Hotel Management – Ahmedabad
  •   Welcome Group Graduate School, Manipal
  •   ITC WelcomeLegionnaire Program 
  • Amrapali Institute of Hotel Management, Haldwani
  • Institute of Hotel Management, Catering & Nutrition – [IHM], Lucknow
  • University School of Hotel Management & Catering Technology, Rayat Bahra University – [USHMCT], Mohali
  • VELS University, Chennai
  •  Munnar Catering College – [MCC], Trivandrum

The Career of Chef in India

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

With the high growth of the standard of living, greater personal disposable income and changing mindset of people in small-town and cities, more and more people are dining in Hotels and Restaurants. Also as people travel outside their home city the requirement of hotels for boarding and lodging as well as demand catering has seen a tremendous surge in India.

Profile of Restaurant Industry in India

As per the CRISIL rating agency, the Indian restaurant industry is estimated at Rs 4.2 lakh crore in both organized and unorganized sectors. There has been a surge of restaurants and hotels of International standard in 2&3 tier cities. Indians are more frequently going out for dining in these cities, approximately 1 to 3 times in a week.

The demand for trained chefs has increased due to the above factors and also people are more conscious of the quality of food and hygiene. Also, the growing popularity of Indian cuisine in the international market and more cross-border traveling of these cuisines have also contributed to the demand for trained chefs.

Culinary Art Jobs in India

Today culinary professionals can find jobs in hotels and restaurant catering departments. In fact, there are plenty of opportunities for these professionals in both private and public sectors as well as there are plenty of chef jobs abroad.

Here are a few of the avenues open for chef jobs in India:

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Food Manufacturing
  • Hotels
  • Food Processing companies
  • Airlines
  • Restaurants
  • Cruise liners
  • Catering in confectionaries
  • Corporate catering
  • Cloud Kitchens

Culinary Professionals can also start their own business by providing catering services to schools, colleges, and hospitals. You can also get government chef jobs.

How much does the Chef earn?

The salary and another reimbursement of chefs depend on their experience, specialization, location, and skills they possess. The culinary art salary at the junior level is Rs1,80,000 to Rs 3,00,000 per annum. The mid-level chef earns about Rs 6,0000 to Rs 9,00,00 per annum.The chef at the senior level earn about Rs 12,000,000 to Rs 24,000,000 per annum.

Top Recruiting Companies for Chef

Here are a few of the top recruiting companies where chefs can show their skills.

  • Oberoi Hotels
  • ITC Group
  • Taj Hotels
  • Radisson Blu Hotel
  • Sheraton Group of Hotels
  • Holiday Inn
  • Leela Palace
  • The Lalit

There is no doubt that the Indian catering industry is changing at a rapid pace. The Industry has been rethinking every aspect from farm to fork to bring the right kind of meaning to its customers.


In earlier days working as a chef was not considered to be a job attached with prestige and pride. It has only a few takers and also has limited scope in a third-world country like India. But today working as a chef is considered a glamorous job with many chefs making a reputation as that of celebrities and stars. Chef is now considered a niche job and those working in five-star hotels and clubs are a coveted lot. 


Library Science 2021– Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

Almost all of us have been to libraries in our school and college days to educate ourselves but most of us have not been aware of the science of management behind it known as Library Science.

What is Library Science?

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

Library Science is the study of practices and tools of management, information technology, and education related to libraries. To put it in simple words, Library Science is the art of organizing, maintaining, and storage of books in a library.

If you think you are a person capable of organizing, have good interpersonal skills, and have an interest in knowledge and information, then you are best suited to work in a library. Of course, you have to hone these skills further. 

A Librarian is a person who has been trained in the field of Library Science and is responsible for running library services in public libraries, colleges, universities, and schools.

Today librarians are also called “Information Managers” or “Information Scientists”.

With the rising number of education and research institutes, the importance of libraries is growing day by day. Thus there is an opportunity for a lucrative and exciting career for those professionals who are competent to administer and run a library.

Types of Libraries

There are four major types of libraries

  • Academic Libraries

These Libraries serve schools and colleges

  • Public Libraries

These Libraries serve towns and cities of every kind.

  • School Libraries

School libraries serve school children in school

  • Special Libraries

Special Libraries are those libraries that serve in special places such as hospitals, corporations, museums, the military, private businesses, and the government.

A Brief History of Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

As per the historical records, the world’s first librarian was Zenoditus of Ephesus from the end of Ptolemy 1 reign.

Martin Schrettinger of Germany wrote about library science from 1808 to 1829.

Thomas Jefferson devised a classification system inspired by the Baconian Method, which grouped books subject-wise instead of alphabetically. The Jefferson collection provided the start of the Library of Congress.

The first American school of librarianship under the leadership of Melvil Dewey was opened at Columbia University. He was noted for his 1876 decimal classification.

S.R.Ranganathan wrote and published his book “The Five Laws of Library Science in 1931 where he conceived the five laws of library science.

Lee Pierce Butler of the United States devised a new approach by advocating research using quantitative methods and ideas in social sciences. The aim was to use library professionals to address society’s information needs.

William Stetson Merrill released his book “A Code of Classifier ” from1914 to 1949, which provided a more pragmatic approach and in-depth knowledge about each field of study related to the system of classification.

The Digital Stage of the twenty-first century has transformed the way of accessing and retrieving information. The library has now become a part of a complex and dynamic educational, recreational, and information infrastructure. The use of computers and mobile devices with wireless high-speed networking has a profound impact on information science and information services.

The Library science has maintained its mission of access equity and community space throughout its evolution. It has developed new means for information retrieval called information literacy skills. All catalogs, databases, and a growing number of books are now available on the internet.

Library Science in India

The Trivandrum Public Library established in 1829 is the first state central library in India.

The father of Library Science in India was Dhiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan(1892-1972) from Bangalore, Mysore. His Five laws of Library Science in 1931 had a worldwide influence on the teaching and practice of library science.

Sayyaji Rao Gaekwad the Maharaja of the erstwhile princely state of Baroda is credited with the starting of library science education in India at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Harinath De from 1877 to 1911 was the first Indian librarian of the National Library of India, then known as Imperial Library. He was an Indian historian, scholar, and polyglot.

How to Start a Career in Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education


A career in Library Science includes organizing and maintaining books, magazines, and journals in libraries.

Professionals in Library science may benefit by earning certifications and taking online courses. This will help them to advance in their career path. Professional certification in library science shows experience in library science and enhances the existing skills.

The library science professionals demonstrate their understanding and adherence to the latest technologies, resources, and practices in library science by earning a Certification in Library Science.

The Job Profile for library science includes the ability to categorize the information required by the people visiting the libraries and having the knowledge of Information systems management, classification/cataloging systems, bibliography, documentation, preservation, and conservation of manuscript, collection management, information system and technology, research methodology, computer applications, reference statistics and management, information processing, archives management, indexing, library planning, etc.

Eligibility for Library Science courses

To be eligible for a Bachelor’s course in Library Science you must have passed the Higher Secondary School Certificate(10+2)examination with science as the main subject(Physics, Chemistry, Maths, and Biology).

To be eligible for a Master’s degree in Library Science, you must have a bachelor’s degree in Science subject.

Certificate and Diploma Courses in Library Science

Here are some of the courses that you can pursue a career in Library Science. You may also do a Library Science degree online that may or may not be recognized by the Government. Institutes like IGNOU offer library science courses through distance learning.

Diploma Courses in Library Science

  • Certificate in Library Science
  • Certificate in Library and Information Science
  • Diploma in Library and Information Science
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Library Automation and Networking.

Bachelor Courses in Library Science

  • Bachelor in Library Science(B.Lib.)
  • Bachelor of Library and Information Science(B.Li Sc.)

Master Course in Library Science

  • Master in Library Science
  • Master in Library and Information Science(MLIS)

Doctoral Courses in Library Science

  • Ph.D. in Library and Information Science
  • M. Phil in Library and Information Science

What is B.Lib.Sc. (Bachelor of Library Science)?

B.Lib.Sc.(Bachelor of Library Science) is a postgraduate academic degree course that is designed to give students an understanding of Library science, its basic principles, laws, and its impact on society. The course teaches students how to manage books and other materials in a library.

Blis course is basically a one-year duration course. Admission to B.Lib.Sc. is provided on the basis of both merit and an entrance exam depending on the policy of the institution where you want to take the admission.

Skills required for BLibSc

Students who have a passion for reading and maintaining books are regarded as suitable for a career in Library Science. Here are a few of the skills that a candidate must possess if he wants to pursue a career in Library Science.

  • Analytical thinking to take administrative decisions.
  • Leadership to maintain effective communication and supervise library staff.
  • Good communication skills to organize Job duties
  • Problem-solving skills 
  • Creativity to learn digital skills.
  • Research skills to research a topic in detail.

What is the Course Curriculum in BLibSc?

Here are a few of the subjects taught in BLib.Sc. course

  • Library Information & Society
  • Library Classification(Practical)
  • Library Cataloguing(Practical)
  • Information sources & Services
  • Project work literature and field study
  • Library classification(Theory)
  • Library Cataloguing(Theory)
  • Library Management & Information centers
  • Library Information Technology

Top Colleges in Bachelor in Library Science(B.Lib.Sc)

Here are a few of the top colleges offering Library Science degrees in India.

  • Jai Hind College

Jai Hind College is located in Churchgate, Mumbai. The total course fee is Rs 47.74 thousand with 720 seats.

  • Delhi Technological University

Delhi Technological University is located in East Delhi. The total course fee is Rs2.97 lacs with 151 seats.

  • Delhi School of Economics

Delhi School of Economics is located in North Campus, Delhi. The total course fees is from Rs12K to Rs29K with 290 seats.

  • Symbiosis Colleges of Arts& Commerce

Symbiosis Colleges of Arts& Commerce is located in Senapati Bapat Road, Pune. The total course fees is Rs 45K

  • Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai

IIT Bombay is located in Powai, Mumbai. The total course fee is Rs8.33 lacs with 32 seats.

  • NDA –  National Defence College

NDA is located in Pune. The total course fee is Rs 1.67 lacs.

Other than the above institutes here are a few more colleges and Universities that offer Library science degrees.

  • Alagappa University, Karaikudi
  • Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
  • Allahabad University
  • Annamalai University, Annamalainagar
  • Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa
  • Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow
  • Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
  • Bundelkhand University, Jhansi
  • Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore
  • Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra
  • Dr. Harisingh Gour Viswavidyalaya, Sagar
  • Gulbarga University, Gulbarga
  • Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur
  • Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
  • Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar
  • HNB Garhwal University Srinagar – Garhwal
  • Jadavpur University, Calcutta
  • Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
  • Jiwaji University, Gwalior
  • Karnatak University, Dharwad
  • Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
  • Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
  • Nagpur University, Nagpur
  • North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong
  • Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur
  • Panjab University, Chandigarh
  • Patna University, Patna
  • Punjabi University, Patiala
  • Rani Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur
  • Sambalpur University, Sambalpur
  • SNDT Womens’ University, Mumbai
  • University of Delhi, Delhi
  • University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
  • The University of Jammu, Jammu (Tawi)
  • University of Kashmir, Srinagar
  • University of Lucknow, Lucknow
  • University of Madras, Chennai
  • University of Mysore, Mysore
  • University of Pune, Pune
  • University of Rajasthan, Jaipur
  • Vikram University, Ujjain
  • Rajarshi Tandon Open University, Allahabad (Distance Education)
  • Indira Gandhi National Open University,(IGNOU), New Delhi (Distance Education)

The Scope of Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

By compiling, preserving, and disseminating information, Library Professionals are known to provide valuable services to society. You can easily find a job in schools and colleges after completing your course. You can also work in government and corporate settings. You can work in public and private libraries. With the growth of the Internet, there has been an increase in demand for library professionals with knowledge in Library Science and computer skills.

Most of the job profiles in library science focus on one of the following:

  • User Services

These services connect people to the information they need.

  • Technical Services

These services include ordering, cataloging, and preparing materials.

  • Computer Services

Library professionals working in computer services maintain databases, do software programming and web page design.

  • Administrative Services

The Library professionals manage the library and services, negotiate contracts with vendors, supervise library staff, and prepare budgets.

After getting a degree in B.Lib.Sc you can work as a High school teacher, Middle school teacher, and special education teacher. The average salary you can get is around 60,000 US$ per annum.

After getting a master’s degree in Library science, you can work as a librarian in a library with an earning potential of 60,000,$US per annum. You can work as an elementary, middle, or High school principal with an earning potential of 96,000 UD$. You can work as a Postsecondary Education administrator in colleges and Universities Instructional coordinator in schools and colleges, and even as School and career counselor to help students to select appropriate careers.

In case you have earned a Doctorate in Library Science, there is a job opportunity for you as a Post-secondary school teacher, Survey researcher, computer and Information research scientist.

The Scope of Library Science In India

In India also there are ample options for students with a degree in Library Science. Today librarians are not only Information providers but they also see the information in the library is systematically organized and constantly update

Today Librarians are in high demand in both government and private sectors in India. They can work as a research assistant to professors, or in publishing companies in preparing bibliographies and catalogs. The students can go for higher studies in this field. The more the number of schools and colleges, the greater the demand for the students of Library Science.

Here is the list of recruiters who can offer you a job as a librarian in their institute.

  • Libraries
  • Universities
  • Colleges
  • Corporate Training Centres
  • Research Institutions
  • Media Organizations
  • Consulting Firms
  • Foreign Embassies
  • Museums
  • Photo/film libraries.

Librarians get an excellent salary package in both the private and government sectors.

In India, the average salary of a Librarian is between Rs 2 to 4 lacs per annum while in the United States you can expect to earn an average salary of $48,000 per annum.

However, the salaries vary depending upon various factors like working area, education, experience and so on. With a master’s degree and good experience, one can get a very good salary package.

The average salary of an assistant librarian is Rs1.5 lac per annum in India. The average salary of a senior librarian is about Rs 3.6 lacs per annum. An Information Architect can earn from Rs 10 to 20 lacs per annum. An information analyst can earn from 1.5 to 20 lacs per annum and a technical writer from 2 to 10 lacs per annum.

Job Profiles for students in Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

Here are a few of the Library Science Jobs For a B.Lib.Sc. graduate in both private and public sectors.

  • Archivist

All assembling, cataloging, and managing valuable collections of historical information is done by an Archivist.

  • Consultant

A library consultant provides consultation and problem-solving assistance to administrators that relate to library plans, management, governance, funding, etc. 

  • Cataloguer

A Cataloguer is responsible for managing the catalog of different materials at a library. The Cataloguer prepares bibliographic and item records for journals, monographs, and other library material. 

  • Curator

All assembling, classifying, managing, and presentation of books in the library are done by the Curator.

  • Deputy Librarian

The Deputy Librarian works with the Assistant librarian and library assistant to report on library improvement, development, and budgeting issues.

  • Library Assistant

The Library Assistant is responsible for compiling records, sorts and shelves of the books, and issues and receives library materials like pictures, cards, and slides.

  • Library Director 

The library director’s responsibility is to check books in and out for customers, oversee employees and staff members. He ensures the smooth running of the day-to-day operations of the library.

  • Indexer

The task of an Indexer is to review documents. He compiles Indexes to make information searches much easier.

  •  Electronic Resources Librarian

An electronic Resources Librarian ensures the smooth running of electronic resources of a library including Databases, ebooks, streaming videos, etc. 

  • Information Architect

An Information Architect is responsible to ensure the user-friendly design of websites and other applications in a library. 

  • Library Science Teacher

The task of a Library Science teacher is to prepare and deliver different topics related to Library Science to undergraduate and graduate students.

  • Law Librarians

A Law Librarian works for law school or law firms. He is responsible for managing different library operations, helping in research, budget monitoring, etc.

The Future of Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

In 2008,  Library Science was ranked as the “Best career” for students. The employment of librarians and library media specialists is projected to grow by 9% from 2020 to 2030.

The bureau of labor statistics projects a growth of 5% between 2019 and 2029 for librarians.

As India is moving towards an Information and knowledge-based society with the proliferation of learning and research institutes the demand and importance of Library Science are bound to grow in the years to come.


Automobile Industry 2021– Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

The Automobile Industry has always been recognized with dynamism all over the world. It has been associated with fast track life, especially in big towns and cities. The task of moving people and goods has become much easier and faster after the entry of fast automobiles in both Passenger and commercial segments.

What is Automobile Industry

Automobile Industry 2021-- Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

All the companies and activities that involve the manufacture of motor vehicles, its components such as engines and bodies constitute the Automobile Industry.  The Automobile Industry, however, excludes tires, batteries, and fuel which belong to other industries.

Passenger vehicles and light trucks are the main products of the Automobile Industry. Commercial vehicles such as delivery trucks and large transport trucks though important to the industry are secondary.

A Brief History Of Automobile Industry

The first modern passenger car was invented in 1901 by Wilhelm Maybach, known as Mercedes for Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft.

Although the automobile was first invented in Germany and France, the automobile industry was quickly dominated by the Americans in the first half of the twentieth century.

The innovative mass-production techniques by Henry Ford set the standards in the automobile industry. Soon by the 1920’s Ford Motors, General Motors, and Chrysler emerged as the top three players in the automobile industry. 

By 1913, the United States was producing about 485,000 motor vehicles which were roughly 80% of the total world’s market share in the automobile industry.

It was only after the second world war that the demand for motor vehicles soared in Europe and Japan. By the 1980’s Japanese carmakers like Toyota, Nissan, Suzuki started dominating the global automobile market leaving their American Carmakers far behind.

Automobile Industry in India 

Automobile Industry 2021-- Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

It was way back in 1897, that the first car was driven on Indian roads by none other than Jamshedji Tata. However, it was in 1942, that Hindustan Motors manufactured the first automobile in India.

Soon after Independence, the Indian Government tried to boost the sector by encouraging the manufacturing of automobiles by Indian companies. However, till the 1980s, only two companies dominated the Indian automobile Industry, Hindustan Motors and Premier. The Utility vehicle market was dominated by Mahindra & Mahindra.

By the 1980’s Japanese carmaker Suzuki entered the Indian market with collaboration with Maruti naming it Maruti Suzuki, a public sector company. They jointly set up a manufacturing plant in Haryana. Maruti Suzuki has been dominating the Indian Automobile market to date due to its fuel efficiency and low cost and maintenance.

The economic reforms by the government led to the entry of other major automakers like Hyundai, Honda, Mercedes, Skoda, Volkswagen into the Indian Market. By the period 2000-2010, almost every major car maker entered the Indian market and also established their manufacturing facilities in India.

India has become the hub for automakers all over the world who are now setting their manufacturing plants in India. Chennai has become Detroit of India With the majority of car makers setting their manufacturing plant there. In second place are Mumbai and Pune belts.

Today India Automobile Industry is the fifth largest in the world in terms of cars, Seventh largest in terms of Commercial Vehicles. It was the third-largest exporter of cars in Asia by 2010.

The Two-Wheeler Market in India

Automobile Industry 2021-- Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

In India, the 2 wheeler Industry was started in the early 1950s when Automobile Products in India(API) started manufacturing scooters in India.

Bajaj Auto started to import Vespa Scooter into India in 1948. In 1960, Bajaj Auto started to manufacture scooters in India in collaboration with Piaggio of Italy.

The Motorcycle segment has three major manufacturers Enfield, Ideal Jawa, and Escorts. It was in the 1980s that the motorcycle market really caught up. The top two slots were occupied by TVS Suzuki and Hero Honda. Today India is the world’s largest market for the Two-wheeler segment.

Why a Career in Automobile Industry

Automobile Industry 2021-- Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

As per the Automobile Industry report, the Indian automobile industry is the fifth-largest in the world in passenger vehicles and the seventh-largest manufacturer in commercial vehicles in 2019.

Indian automotive industry(including component manufacturing) is expected to reach US$ 251.4-282.8 billion) by 2026.

The automobile industry has attracted foreign direct investment(FDI) worth US$25.85 billion from the year 2000 to 2021.

Domestic production of automobiles has increased at the rate of 2.36% between the years 2016 and 2020. About 26.26 million vehicles were manufactured in the country in 2020.

Domestic automobiles sales have increased at the rate of 1.29% between the year 2016 and 2020 with 21.55 million vehicles being sold in 2020.

The  Indian auto market is dominated by Two-wheelers and Passenger cars. The two-wheeler market share is 80.8% and passenger car market share is 12.9% respectively in the Indian auto market in 2020.

Passenger Vehicles sales showed growth by 28.39% in March 2021in the Indian market.

Automobile export has reached 4.77 million vehicles in 2020, a 6.94% growth rate from 2016 to 2020. The  Two-wheeler share was 73.9%, followed by passenger cars at 14.2%, three-wheelers at 10.5%, and 1.3% at commercial vehicles.

The electric vehicle market in India is estimated to be at Rs50,000 crores(US$7.09 billion) by the year.2025.

With companies like Hyundai, MG Motors, Mercedes, and Tata Motors investing in the electric vehicles market, the electric vehicle market in India is likely to increase at the rate of 36% by 2026.

The Government aims to develop India as a global manufacturing and research and development(R&D) hub. It expects the automobile industry to attract US$8-10 billion in local and foreign investment by the year 2023.

Thus there is a lot of scope in the Automobile Industry in India for those who want to pursue a career in the automobile industry. All you must have is a passion for cars and bikes and skills for hands-on work and technology.

Job Profiles in Automobile Industry

Automobile Industry 2021-- Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

There are varieties of roles for you in the automobile industry to fill. All you have to do is to understand the responsibilities of those roles. You will have an opportunity to work with people who share the same passion for cars and the skills that you possess to work in the automobile sector.

Jobs in the automobile industry include maintenance, repair, design, development, sales, and customer service. Let us discuss a few of the career profiles across all sectors in the automobile industry.

  • Car Detailer

Car detailers are responsible for cleaning the interior and exterior of vehicles including washing, vacuuming, waxing, and polishing the car.

  • Car rental agent

            Car rental agents rent cars to those customers who temporarily need the vehicle.Car rental agents should possess knowledge of the operation and technological features of a variety of vehicle types.

  • Vehicle Inspector

The Vehicle inspector’s responsibility is to ensure that the vehicles meet the standard safety standards. They check the cars for damages and recommend repairs in case they find malfunctions.

  •  Auto-body repair technician

Auto body repair technician’s responsibility is to safely fix car frames, suspensions, dents, windows, and the wheel alignment of a damaged car. They mainly focus on the exterior,non-mechanical components of the vehicles and try to make them new again. 

  • Auto Mechanic

The task of Auto mechanics is to carry out routine maintenance, diagnostic testing, and mechanical repairs of the vehicle. They mainly work on motorized components including engines, drive belts, power steering, brakes, and transmissions. Auto mechanics are familiar with vehicle regulations and technological systems of the vehicles. They ensure that the vehicles are safely returned to the owner.

  • Auto electrician

The task of the Auto electricians is to inspect, repair and maintain the vehicle’s headlights, dashboards, warning lights, alarm systems, circuit boards, and starter motors. They deal with all kinds of electric issues within the vehicle.

      7. Vehicle Salesperson

The role of the car salesman is to help customers find the right car. They explain the benefits of various vehicles and the differences between them. They build relationships with their customers, understand their needs, and encourage customers to purchase a second time from their dealerships.

       8. Auto-Sales Manager

        The responsibility of the Auto-Sales Manager is to forecast vehicle demand and preferences for their area, maintain inventory levels, and managing the car sales team. The Sales Manager oversees  various promotional activities and discounts, public relations events, and advertising campaigns

      9. Auto-Engineer

        Auto engineers do research, develop and design the technical systems in the vehicles. They work with the development and the design team and utilize advanced technology in the vehicle’s navigation, warning, control, and fuel systems. Auto-engineer continues to innovate and develop new systems based on current market trends.

      10. Process Engineer

           The process engineer is responsible for the plant production process and maintains automated systems. They also resolve technical issues. They must have a thorough knowledge and technical expertise in the automated manufacturing process. The process engineers have to work independently and oversee the efficiency of the plant.

      11) Auto Designer

           The overall appearance of the interior and exterior of the car is the responsibility of Auto designers. They use the art of engineering and business to give the car a more aerodynamic shape, efficient in function, and cost-effective. They use their creative skills to incorporate mechanical, electrical, technical, and comfort features.

     12)  Quality Testing Engineer

         The quality testing engineer is responsible for testing all the components of a vehicle. They develop and execute a test case to resolve any quality defects. Their role is to regularly ensure the highest quality of the entire vehicle.

In case you have business acumen and entrepreneurship inside you and want to start your own business, the Automobile Industry has tremendous opportunities for that also. You can be an automobile or service center owner, start a spot cleaning and maintenance services, be a loss assessor and surveyor. You can start your own automobile components manufacturing unit, can become a Business consultant, accessories vendor, and many more.

How can you build a career in Automobile Industry?


Automobile Industry 2021-- Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

The Automobile Industry has become one of the most vital parts of human life. In today’s world, no work can be completed no matter how small it is without the use of vehicles.

With the Automobile Industry growing at a tremendous pace in India making it one of the fastest-growing industries in India, there is a lot of scope in this industry for those who seek to start their career in Automobile Engineering.

A degree in Automobile Engineering will be your first step to make a career in the Automobile Industry. As an Automobile Engineer, you will have to combine several elements of Mechanical engineering, Electrical engineering, Software engineering, safety, and environmental aspects in your work.

Skills required to become  Automobile Engineer

To become an Automobile Engineer you must possess or acquire few necessary skills. Here are a few of them.

  • The students must be strong in Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry.
  • The students must have a passion for cars and have an interest in auto mechanics.
  • Students must have a creative bent of mind and must be able to provide innovative solutions in repairs, designing, and drawing.
  • Must be proficient in coding in Python, C++, Linux.
  • Must be proficient in Machine Learning and Deep Learning.

Eligibility Criteria to become an Automobile Engineer

A degree in Automobile Engineering requires an intensive four-engineering course in BE or B-Tech from an engineering college. Here are the eligibility criteria of the automobile engineering course-

  • Students must have passed their 10+2 board or equivalent exam from a recognized board with physics, chemistry, and maths as main subjects.
  • Must have scored a minimum of 50% marks in their board exams(60% for BITS, NITs, and IITs)
  • Diploma holders in the mechanical and electrical or electronic streams can also take admission in automobile engineering in the second year by taking a lateral entry entrance exam.
  • Candidates with Bachelor’s degree in science are eligible in automobile engineering through lateral entry.

Automobile Engineering Courses

Aspirants have the opportunity to choose Diploma, Degree, Doctoral, or Master’s courses depending on their eligibility. These courses equip the candidates with the necessary skills and knowledge to become automobile engineers.

Here are few automobile engineering courses offered by the institutes in India

Automobile Engineering Degree Courses

Course Duration
B.Tech in Automobile Engineering 4 Years 
B.Tech in Automotive Design Engineering 4 Years
B.E in Automobile Engineering 4 Years

Automobile Engineering Certificate Courses

Course Duration
Certificate Course in Automobile Engineering 1 Year
Certificate Course in Automobile Repair & Driving 1 Year

Automobile Engineering Diploma Courses

Course Duration
Diploma in Automobile Engineering 3 Years 

Automobile Engineering Master’s Courses

Course Duration
M.Tech in Automobile Engineering 2 Years 
M.Tech in Automotive Engineering & e-Manufacturing 2 Years
M.E in Automobile Engineering 2 Years

Doctoral Courses

Course Duration
Ph.D. in Automobile Engineering 3 Years


Few of the specializations available in automobile engineering are-

  • Supply chain management
  • Thermodynamics
  • Rapid Prototyping
  • Fuel Technology and emissions.
  • Fluid Mechanics
  • Engine Systems
  • Emission control
  • Engine Systems
  • Computer-based systems and electronics
  • Aerodynamics
  • Electronics and control systems

Top Automobile Engineering Colleges

Here are a few of the top institutes in India that offer an Automobile  Engineering degree


S.No Name of College Course Fees 
1 IIT, Delhi Rs 3.6 lakh 
2 IIT, Roorkee Rs 2.9 lakh 
3 Sathyabama University, Chennai Rs 1.7-2 lakh 
4 Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal Rs 14.41 lakh 
5 Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai Rs 3 lakh


Here are a few of the entrance exams for Automobile engineering admission to colleges.

  • JEE Main
  1. AP EAMCET(Andhra Pradesh Engineering, Agriculture and Medical Common Entrance Test)
  2. BCECE(Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive exam)
  3. BITSAT(Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test)
  4. JEE Advanced(Joint Entrance Examination Advanced)
  5. TE EAMCET(Telangana Engineering Agriculture and Medical Common Entrance Test)
  6. UPSEE(Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Exam)


There are a lot of opportunities available for students in various Multinational and Indian Companies who have completed their BTech in Automobile engineering. The company seeks candidates who are spontaneous, eager to learn, challenge-seeker,time-bound, and are dedicated to the work assigned to them on a timely basis.

Top Automobile Companies in India

Automobile Industry 2021-- Your Gateway to a Dynamic Career

Here are the Top Automobile Companies in 2021 where students can seek Automobile Engineering jobs.

  • Tata Motors Ltd

Tata Motors is the largest automobile company in India and one of the largest in the world. It provides mobility solutions to over 175 countries. It manufactures a wide range of cars, utility vehicles, trucks, and buses. Its market share in the Indian Market is 45.1% in 2018-19.

  • Maruti Suzuki Ltd.

Maruti Suzuki is the market leader in the Passenger cars segment in India. It is a joint venture between Govt. of India and Maruti Suzuki. It is the second-largest automobile company in India in terms of revenue.

  • Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.

           Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. is the third-largest automobile company in India by sales. It manufactures a range of vehicles that include 

         Commercial Vehicles, Tractors, Passenger Vehicles, UV, and LCV.

  • Hero Motocorp Ltd

           Hero Motocorp is the largest manufacturer of two-wheelers in terms of sales in the world. It has satisfied customers all over the globe. It is the only Indian Company to set up its manufacturing company in Columbia.

  • Bajaj Auto

          With a presence in over 70 countries, Bajaj Auto is the world’s third-largest manufacturer of two-wheelers. Bajaj Brand is well known in countries in Latin America, Africa, Middle East, South, and Southeast Asia. Bajaj Auto is the fifth largest automobile company in India. It has a 48% share in KTM AG of Austria, the fastest-growing   Motorcycle brand in the World.

  • Ashok Leyland Ltd.

        Ashok Leyland is the flagship company of the Hinduja group. It is the second-largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles in India. It is the fourth largest manufacturer of buses in the world and the tenth-largest manufacturer of trucks. Ashok Leyland had launched India’s first electric bus and euro 6 compliant truck in 2016. It has over one million buses all over the world.

  • TVS Motor -Company Ltd.

TVS Motor Company is India’s third-largest two-wheeler manufacturing company. The company has an annual production capacity of over four million two-wheelers and 120,000 3 wheelers. The company has 4 manufacturing plants in India.

  • Eicher Motors Ltd.

Eicher Motors is the parent company of Royal Enfield which is the global leader in middleweight motorcycles. Royal Enfield has a manufacturing plant in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Eicher Motors also has a joint venture with Sweden’s AB Volvo- — Volvo Eicher Commercial Vehicle to manufacture commercial vehicles like trucks and buses in India.

  • Force Motors Ltd.

Force Motors was established in 1958 to provide affordable commercial transport for small business owners. Today it manufactures a range of vehicles in Small Commercial vehicles, Multi-utility vehicles, Light Commercial Vehicles, Special Utility Vehicles, and Agricultural Vehicles.

  • SML ISUZU Ltd.

SML ISUZU Ltd established in 1985, has over 33 years of experience in producing light & commercial vehicles to meet Indian customer needs. It is the first company in India to build buses, Ambulances, and customized vehicles.

 In case you want to go Global, you can seek recruitment in top automobile companies of the world like BMW, Audi, Mercedes Benz, Renault, Volkswagen, Ford, and many other companies.

You can also have an opportunity to work in vendors associated with these automobile companies like Rane Steer, Bosch, Denso, Magna, Continental, MRF, Exide, Amaron to name a few.

You can also work in Online Portals like Cartrade, Autocar India, Cardekho, Carwale, Overdrive Top Gear, and so on.

Salary of an Automobile Engineer

At entry-level in automobile engineering, you get a stipend of Rs 20,000 to 30,000 during their training period. Later on the confirmation, their salary package ranges from Rs 3 lacs to 6 lacs per annum, An Automobile engineer with a Master’s degree and experience can earn more than Rs 100,000 per month. In the USA  the average salary of an automobile engineer is about $64,000 per year.

The Future of Automobile Industry in India

With India moving towards becoming the third-largest market in passenger vehicles by 2021, the Automobile industry has a bright future in India. Rapid Urbanization, burgeoning consumer class, and a high growth rate are positive barometers for a high growth rate for the automobile industry in India. The favorable government policies will only help the automobile sector in the future.





Health Insurance 2021- Welcome to a Blitzkrieg and Dynamic Career

What Is Health Insurance?

Health Insurance 2021- Welcome to a Blitzkrieg and Dynamic Career

Health Insurance has become a major tool to take care of our health care for us and our family. “Health is Wealth” is an old proverb and is true in today’s world when health care costs are rising and most of us are unable to pay for it.

That is where Health Insurance comes into play. After all, we all would love to pay our rising medical expenses in installments or premiums which can be annual, quarterly, or monthly depending upon our convenience in today’s fast-paced world when we hardly have time to take care of ourselves and our family’s health, Health  Insurance has become a major tool and means to compensate for this shortcoming.

Indeed we live in a world of uncertainties where sickness, accidents, and financial loss have to us and our near and dear ones have become a major headache for all of us. Not any more. Insurance cover has taken care of all of that and we just have to pay our annual premium. 

Insurance is a safeguard to all of us against uncertainties. We have all kinds of Insurance like Life Insurance, Accidental Insurance, General Insurance, and of course Health Insurance which we are going to discuss here in detail. The Logic is simple. We pay our premiums and in return, our health insurer agrees to cover a part or full medical expenses.

What is Insurance Premium?

The  Insurance Premium is the amount we pay yearly, quarterly, or monthly to a Health Insurance company to provide Health Coverage.

What is PPO?

PPO is a Preferred Provider Organization. Under PPO Plan your healthCare company has multiple health care providers at your disposal.

Types of Health Insurance

Health Insurance is of various types. You can have medical insurance through a private insurer, through an employee, or through the government.

Today this insurance covers more than just medical expenses. Of Course, you have to pay extra for that in your premium. These include drugs prescription, Vision, Travel, life, disability, critical illness, and accidental insurance.

The Scope of Health Insurance in India

Health Insurance 2021- Welcome to a Blitzkrieg and Dynamic Career

The world’s first prototype of a health insurance company was started by lumber companies in Washington state in the USA in the 1890s. Here the companies paid the doctors to offer care to their employees.

It was in Texas, the USA where the hospitals banded together in 1929 to create the world’s first Health Insurance Blue Cross that helped cover the Hospitalization cost to patients. By 1939, Blue Cross had over 3 million members.

In India, Health Insurance was started in 1986 by the General Insurance company of India under its Mediclaim Plan. The health care industry has increased exponentially since then. 

The healthCare industry in India is one of the fastest-growing industries. The market grew at the rate of 24% in the financial year 2017. It has been growing at the rate of 23% for the last 10 years which can be attributed to the liberalization of the economy and increasing awareness of health insurance among the public.

Despite the impact of Covid19, the Indian HealthCare Industry is expected to grow by 10% to 576 billion Indian Rupees by2020.

Healthcare Industry is still in its infant stage in India with roughly 25% of the population under its coverage.

Thus there exists a huge potential for growth and penetration of Health Insurance to a large population. There are a lot of opportunities in the marketing and distribution of health insurance products in India.

Today there are 30 Health Insurance companies in India in the Government, Private and Stand-Alone. These companies cover life coverage, travel insurance, collision protection, health Insurance, rustic insurance, and so on.

Top 10 Health Insurance Companies in India

Here are a few of the Best Health Insurance companies in India.

  • IFFCO Tokio General Insurance

This insurance company is a tie-up between the world’s largest compost producer IFFCO (India Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Group) and Japan’s 2nd largest insurance company Tokio Marine group.

  • Care Health Insurance

Care health Insurance Ltd, formerly known as Religare Health Insurance is a joint endeavor between Reliance Enterprise Ltd, Union Bank of India, and Corporation bank.

  • Magma HDI Insurance

           Magma HDI General insurance company Ltd is a joint enterprise between Magma Fincorp Ltd. and HDI Global SE. 

  • The Oriental Insurance Company

The Oriental Insurance company offers its customers a wide scope of health Insurance items.

  • New India General Insurance

New India General Insurance is a global general insurance company in Mumbai. The insurance company has an assortment of health insurance plans for various sections of society.

  • Bajaj Allianz General Insurance

Bajaj Allianz is a joint endeavor between Alliance SE and Bajaj Finserv Limited. In excess of 6500 organization clinics, the insurance company provides health care plans to its members.

  • Max Bupa  Insurance

           Max Bupa health insurance is a premium insurance company with various health care plans that covers you and your family members.

  • Tata AIG General Insurance Company

Tata AIG provides numerous health care plans to you and your family members.

  • ICICI Lombard Insurance company

ICICI Lombard Insurance company is a premium Insurance company in India with a lot of health-related plans with numerous benefits.

  • Manipal Cigna Insurance 

Manipal Cigna Health Insurance was set up in 2014. The insurance company has health plans well suited to its customers and their family members. 

 The Healthcare industry offers excellent job opportunities for students after graduation. It offers them different career paths to pursue in the right direction. The basic requirement for the students is working knowledge in finance, accounting, and economics and interest to work in the healthcare sector.

By working in Healthcare companies you get an opportunity to provide essential services to their fellow members of society, work in a stable industry with job security, and ability to master various skills like customer service and critical thinking to help them grow in related industries.

Job Profiles in Health Insurance

Health Insurance 2021- Welcome to a Blitzkrieg and Dynamic Career

Though Healthcare Industry has many career choices to consider, here are a few of the most popular career paths for you to choose.

     1)  Insurance Billing Executive

A Health  Insurance billing specialist processes bills for insurance companies. They create invoices, verify patient’s information profiles and handle their insurance claims. They ensure the accuracy of the payments made to the patients. They even assist the patients with billing queries, discrepancies, or issues.

     2)  Insurance Verification Specialists.

The task of a Health  Insurance verification specialist verifies and certifies the patient’s insurance status. Insurance verification specialists research patient’s policy benefits and prove their coverage for specific medical procedures. They also perform clerical functions for patient billing and help resolve clerical functions for patient billing. They also help patients with copayments, benefits, coverage, and care authorization. They also collaborate with supervisors and managers to resolve complicated converge issues.

     3) Insurance Claims Processor

The task of a Health  Insurance claims processor is to access and process claims for insurance companies. They also perform clerical duties that can include processing new insurance policies, modifying existing ones, and obtaining policyholder’s information. They verify the policyholder’s records and accounts. They also perform data entry tasks, assist other insurance specialists with insurance claims, reimbursements and determine the validity of claims resulting in their acceptance and rejection.

     4)  Insurance Sales Agent

A Health Insurance Sales Agent helps customers choose the right insurance policy for their needs. Their task is to call potential customers, follow up, and offer customized programs on each customer’s expectations. They also design and implement marketing strategies to sell health insurance policies. Insurance sales agents can work independently or with health insurance companies.

     5)  Insurance Benefits Advisors

The role of Health Insurance benefits advisors is to consult and help customers who are interested in taking health insurance policies. Their role is to provide correct information on the health policies to the customers. The schedule calls, organize in-person meetings with potential clients.

    6)  Insurance Implementation Specialists 

All tasks related to computer software and Hardware, technical systems, and technical solutions projects are done by Insurance Implementation Specialists. Their role in the insurance companies is to plan, initiate and manage external software implementation projects The customers are given a better understanding of how to use the company’s software. Implementation specialists work within the IT department of an organization. They also act as consultants to clients helping them choose the right company’s products and services.

     7) Medical Coding Supervisor

The coordination and managing of a team of medical coding specialists in a company are done by the Medical Coding Supervisor. All the patent files are checked for proper coding by the Medical Coding Supervisor. This ensures the safety and 100% accuracy of insurance claims. All the tasks related to medical charts revision and updating treatment and procedural codes stored in the medical database are done by the Insurance companies. Medical Coding Supervisor works for insurance companies, physician offices clinics, and hospitals.

     8)  Insurance Broker

The task of connecting clients with the health insurance companies is done by the Health Insurance Brokers. Insurance Brokers help their clients to find an Insurance policy that is most beneficial to them. They also negotiate new policy terms, lower premiums, and extend insurance benefits on their client’s behalf.

     9) Healthcare Insurance Actuary

           The development and implementation of solutions to different financial problems in the health insurance industry are done by a Health Insurance Actuary. They analyze data and make economic predictions of expected costs and profits margins based on public health data, their family history, occupational risk factors, and age-associated with particular customers. They also help underwriters to calculate premium costs.

     10) Insurance Underwriters

           All reviewing of insurance applications to determine their risks is done by  Insurance Underwriters. They analyze data, calculate risk, and research candidate’s applications to approve or refuse coverage.

 Salary in Health Insurance Sector

The average salary of a Health Insurance employee is Rs 1,453,193(20,203 USD) per year. The most typical salary in Health Insurance in India is Rs 504,287(7000USD).

How to join Health Insurance Industry

Health Insurance 2021- Welcome to a Blitzkrieg and Dynamic Career

You can Join the HealthCare  Industry by taking a Certificate Course in Health Insurance after graduation. After completing the certificate course students can get a plumb job in many Indian and Multinational companies.

The certificate course is designed to prepare the students for the ongoing developments in the healthCare system in India. It helps the students to understand the role of IRDA and TPAs, E-commerce in health insurance, Knowledge and skills required to prevent, diagnose and manage acute and urgent aspects of illness and injuries affecting patients of all age groups. 

The certificate course is well suited for graduates in any discipline including Medicine in Allopathy, Dentistry, Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Physiotherapy, Nursing, and Paramedical. 

The certificate course also provides various career opportunities to doctors who want to specialize in consultancy in HealthCare companies, Hospitals, and corporate organizations.

The course is certified by Medvarsity and is of 6 months duration.

The students must graduate in MBBS, Dental, Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, Physiotherapy, Nursing, and paramedical to be eligible to join the certificate course.

The certificate course is now offered online also.


Here are a few of the top colleges that offer courses in Health Insurance in India.

The Institute offers students a 6-month Diploma in Health Insurance. Bidar Institute of Medical Sciences is affiliated with Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. The institute is located at Udgir Road, Bidar, Karnataka.

The Institute offers a 6-month course in Health Insurance. It is affiliated with Karnataka State Open University. The institute is located at Jamnagar, Gujrat.

The institute offers a 6-month Diploma in Health Insurance. Brilliant Education is affiliated with Gujarat University. The Institute is located at Waghodia Road, Vadodara, Gujrat.

Medvarsity is India’s first Medical E-Learning Venture initiated by Apollo Hospitals Group, India’s first JCI-accredited Hospital. Medvarsity was launched in 2000 to promote quality education for Health care providers through Distance medical Educational programs in many specialties. The Institute offers a 6 months course in Health Insurance after graduation.


After getting your  Insurance Certificate, you must also develop your Marketing and Management skills to grow the healthcare industry. You must be able to sell a Health Insurance policy to your prospective clients. After all, that will be your primary job as a  Insurance agent in the industry.






Digital Learning in 2021 and its exciting benefits

Digital Learning is the starting of a new dawn in education. The 21st century has been rightly termed as the era of digital learning and education. The growth of the Internet has brought a substantial change in people. Today we are heavily dependent on the usage of digital technology to complete even the simplest of tasks. 

Digital Learning or E-Learning has created ripples in the teaching sector. It has successfully replaced the blackboards, chalks, and dusters with computers, tablets, and mobiles. The traditional way of learning has been replaced by web-based digital learning and Digital Learning app. It has successfully strengthened student’s learning experience.

What is Digital Learning?

Digital Learning in 2021 and its exciting Benefits

Digital Learning can be defined as learning that is accompanied by the use of the internet and information technology. Today, Digital Learning encompasses a wide range of learning strategies and theories that includes blended learning and virtual learning.

Digital Learning: A Brief History 

Digital Learning in 2021 and its exciting Benefits


The first machine that allowed students to test themselves on subject matters was invented in 1924. By 1954, BF Skinner had dreamed up a “teaching machine” that enabled schools to administer programmed instruction to their students. 

However, it was not until 1960 that the first computer-based training program was developed. Known as “PLATO” (Programmed Logic for Automated Teaching Operations), the program was designed for students at the University of Illinois but ended up being more broadly used by students statewide.  

By the 1970s, online learning started to become more interactive rather than simply feeding information to students. 

The 1990s saw an even bigger push toward digital learning. Schools were designed specifically to deliver online courses without companion in-person learning sessions. With its increased adoption, digital learning also became more affordable to develop and deliver. 

As time went on, digital learning started making its way into the business realm. The development of artificial intelligence has made Digital Learning more attractive to students.

By the first decade of the 2000s, it had become a popular way to deliver training to employees. The move to online learning and training made it possible for both new and seasoned employees to develop and improve their skills when and where it’s most convenient. 

How can we make Digital Learning successful?

Digital Learning in 2021 and its exciting Benefits

Despite the fact that the growth of digital learning is gaining momentum all over the world especially during the Post-covid 19 era, the students, teachers, and parents still need to take a few steps in order to make digital learning more successful by taking the initiative.

     1) Awareness       

Despite so much hue and the cry of Digital learning there is still a lot to be done in this sector to make it more effective especially in underdeveloped and developing countries where the concept is still unknown or has poor or no networking infrastructure.

      2) Increasing Computer literacy

          Unless there is no proper computer education and training among people, digital learning is ineffective or virtually non-existence. Thus our first job is to make people computer literate. Computer education must be made compulsory in schools and computer training centers must be opened in different parts of the countries especially in rural areas.

     3) Make User friendly Digital Learning courses

         The content and quality of the digital learning courses must be relevant and meaningful to make digital learning more effective. The digital learning courses must be made more user-friendly so the students can easily operate upon them. It must be designed taking into account the learning ability of the learner and his age. One way to do this is to use various e-learning/authoring tools that would make digital learning interesting.

    4) The Attitude of the teacher

      The attitude of the instructor also plays a vital role in increasing the student’s response to digital learning. He should encourage his students to make full use of the new digital learning tools. 

    5) Bringing more diversity in Digital learning courses

     In order to make digital learning more interesting and interactive, new diverse courses must be introduced to students. The more choices they have the greater their inclination toward the new learning technique.

 The Benefits of Digital Learning

Digital Learning in 2021 and its exciting Benefits


As more and more students and teachers are steadily moving towards online digital learning. In almost every field including business, arts, engineering, and programming languages, digital learning is showing its presence. Traditional marketing is being replaced with Digital Marketing. Digital classrooms are coming up rapidly in all streams all over the world with learners eagerly filling up the seats.

Digital Learning has proved to be beneficial in several significant ways:

  • Robust educational system

Digital Learning has helped educators in developing a robust education infrastructure. Nowadays, more and more institutes all over the world have incorporated digital learning into their curriculum. Many engineering colleges are teaching in smart classrooms, where the students are taught using advanced e-learning tools.

  • Competitive edge to Engineering/technology students

Digital Learning has given the students a competitive edge over those studying in a traditional way especially those studying engineering. Most online portals offer online courses that cover both theory and practical. Such tools and technology have taken our education to the next level where students can study any subject at their convenient time and pace.

  • A Superb Tool For Transferring Knowledge And Upgrading Skills

Digital Learning is a very flexible medium for studying sitting in the comfort of one’s own room. Students can now study, experience, test their learning through self-assessment, and even keep a track of their progress and milestones.

  • Ideal For Corporate Training.

The online learning platforms are portable, efficient, flexible, and robust. Corporate companies have now started using digital learning tools extensively to train their employees, help them upgrade their skills, and provide seamless sessions for knowledge transfer.

Digital Learning Tools for Students and Teachers

Digital Learning in 2021 and its exciting Benefits


Here are some of the digital learning platforms with the purpose of giving autonomy to the student, building a robust education system, encouraging collaboration, and facilitating communication between teachers and learners.

  1. Edmodo

              Edmodo is an educational tool that connects teachers and students and is assimilated into a social network. Here, the teachers can create online collaborative groups, administer and provide educational materials, measure student performance, and communicate with parents, among other functions. Edmodo has more than 34 million users who connect to create a learning process that is more enriching, personalized, and aligned with the opportunities brought by technology and the digital environment.

   2) Socrative

                 Socrative is a system that allows teachers to create exercises or educational games which students can solve using mobile devices, whether smartphones, laptops, or tablets. Teachers can see the results of the activities and, depending on these, modify the subsequent lessons in order to make them more personalized.

    3) Google Classroom

                  Google Classroom is a powerful community-based social tool for learning. It allows students to post questions and receive answers from their teachers and fellow students. Furthermore, teachers can post questions and lesson materials for review at home. It can also be integrated with other Google products such as Google Forms, Google Docs which can be a great way to get feedback from students.

     4) Adobe Spark Video

                  Spark Video is part of the Adobe Spark suite. The application enables students to produce short, animated, narrated explainer videos. Students can easily add photos, video clips, icons, and voice, as well as professional-quality soundtracks and cinematic motion to their video creations. Video and vlog making is a great way to engage students creatively, and an ‘out of the box approach to class projects or reviewing learning materials.

     5) Projeqt

                 Projeqt is a tool that allows you to create multimedia presentations, with dynamic slides in which you can embed interactive maps, links, online quizzes, Twitter timelines, and videos, among other options. During a class session, teachers can share with students academic presentations which are visually adapted to different devices.


                 TED-Ed is an educational platform that allows creating educational lessons with the collaboration of teachers, students, animators—generally people who want to expand knowledge and good ideas. This website allows democratizing access to information, both for teachers and students. Here, people can have active participation in the learning process of others.

      7) Khan Academy

               With Khan Academy you can literally learn anything; all for free. Lessons are presented by way of videos, interactive activities, and challenges. Learners also earn badges in line with their achievements and can save their progress to their own profile. Khan Academy is a great way to supplement your teaching, provide extra work to your gifted and talented students or help those who are struggling with certain content.

      8) Class Dojo

               Class Dojo is a free classroom communication, community building, and behavior management application. A well-behaved student body is associated with better learning for everyone in the class as it minimizes distractions and improves student focus. Class Dojo enables teachers to not only track behavior and share this with parents, but also assign students tasks that build positive behavioral skills and traits.

     9) EduClipper

              This platform allows teachers and students to share and explore references and educational material. In eduClipper, you can collect information found on the internet and then share it with the members of previously created groups, which offers the possibility to manage more effectively the academic content found online, improve research techniques, and have a digital record of what students achieved during the course. Likewise, it provides the opportunity for teachers to organize a virtual class with their students and create a portfolio where all the work carried out is stored.


Storybird aims to promote writing and teaching skills in students through storytelling. In this tool, teachers can create interactive and artistic books online through a simple and easy-to-use interface. The stories created can be embedded in Blogs, sent by email, and printed among other options. In Storybird,  teachers can also create projects with students, give constant feedback, and organize classes and grades.    

      11) SWAYAM  

    SWAYAM is an online interactive program initiated by the government of India. It is designed to achieve three cardinal principles of educational policy Access, Equity, and Quality.SWAYAM is offering  800 online courses on its platform. From 2021-2022 academic session 149 universities in India, both private and government have accepted credits of SWAYAM massive open online course.  About 2.1 crore students have been enrolled in SWAYAM since its inception.


Byju’s is an Indian multinational educational company, headquartered in Bangalore. It was founded in 1011. As of June 2021, Byju’s is valued at $16.5 billion. It is the world’s most valuable educational technology company. Byju’s learning app is an education tutoring app that runs on a freemium model. It was launched in 2015. It offers educational content for students from classes 4 to 12 and in 2019 Early learning program was started for classes 1 to 3. It also trains students for examination for examinations in India such as IIT-JEE, NEET, CAT, IAS, and International exams like GRE and GMAT. 


Digital Learning has completely transformed the teaching pedagogy for students. It has changed the whole game of learning where unlike the traditional methods of teaching where teachers used to dominate the scene, in digital learning the power rests with the students. Due to its benefits, Digital Learning has become more popular and is being appreciated by students all over the world.