Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

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In the last article, I discussed with you how to start your Career in Meteorology which is a part of earth science. Today I am going to write about another part of earth science – Geology. Here I will discuss what is Geology and how you can start your career as Geologists.

What is Geology?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geology is the study of the earth in a scientific way where we study the Earth’s materials, what it is made of, and the processes that affect them over time. It includes the study of organisms on our planet. The main purpose of Geology is the find and understand the reasons for situations like climatic change to predict it better. It also includes the study of natural processes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, earthquakes.

Geology is a multidisciplinary science that uses principles of Physics, Chemistry, biology, and Mathematics to study the earth. The geology consists of sub-disciplines such as geoinformatics, mineralogy, volcanology, geomorphology, crystallography, gemology, oceanography, geophysics, geochemistry, and economic geology.

Today Geology has an international appeal as more and more students are interested in opting for this course. There are many educational institutions and universities that offer diplomas, degrees as well as online geology courses.

Types of Geology

There are two main types of Geology.

  • Physical Geology

Physical Geology deals with the study of the earth and the processes acting on them. This includes volcanoes, earthquakes, rocks, mountains, and the oceans and the processes acting on them.

  • Historical Geology

In Historical Geology, we study the history of the earth. It focuses on what happened to earth since its formation. Geologists also study the changes in life throughout time. In historical geology, one can travel back in time to the formation of the earth and move forward through time, witnessing the changes in earth itself and the life on it.

Who are the Geologists?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

A geologist is a scientist who studies the Earth, its material, and its evolution. They also study the organism inhabiting the earth. Geologists apply the working knowledge of various subjects of science such as physics, chemistry, maths, and biology for explaining the different phenomenon.  A Geologist locates the natural deposits of minerals underground, creates geology reports, maps, and interprets the researched data to the next level.

What do Geologists do?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geologists work to help us understand the history of our planet. This helps them foresee the events and processes of the past that might influence the future.

Geologists study earth processes such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, and volcanic eruptions that are catastrophic and can take thousands of lives. A geologist can help builders to build buildings and structures like Dams, Bridges in places where there is the least chance of them being damaged. They can help us to avoid building residential places by preparing maps that of areas that might be flooded in the future.

We use Earth materials like oil, metals, and water every day in our life. Geologists conduct studies that locate rocks that contain important metals, plan and construct the mines that produce them, and devise methods to remove them from rocks. Similarly, they work to locate and produce oil, natural gas, and groundwater.

Geologists work to learn about the past climates of Earth and how they have changed over time. The historical geological information helps us understand the status of our climate, how it is changing, and predict its effect in the future.

Geologists conduct surveys, construct maps, measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic field.

History of Geology

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.

  • It was in the 4th century BC, the Greek Scientist Aristotle made critical observations of the slow rate of geological change which cannot be observed during one person’s lifetime.
  • Aristotle’s successor Theophrastus made the greatest progress in his work on stones. He was able to describe many minerals and ores both from the local mines such as those in Laurium near Athens and further afield.
  • Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1048 AD) was one of the earliest Indian Muslim geologists who claimed in his writings that the Indian subcontinent was once a sea.
  • Ibn Sina (981-1037 AD) is a Persian polymath who made important contributions to geology, and natural science.
  • It was not until the 17th century that Geology made great strides in its development.
  • The Scottish Naturalist James Hutton(1726-1797) is known as the Father of Geology. He formulated geological principles based on the observation of rocks.
  • A New Theory of the Earth was published in 1696 by William Whiston where he tried to reason that the Great Flood had occurred and it formed the rock strata of the earth.
  • The Industrial Revolution and the development of the mining industry and stimulated the rapid development of the stratigraphic column stating that the sequence of rock formations arranged according to their order of formation in time.
  • The early 20th century saw the discovery of Radio Isotopes and the development of Radiometric dating. In 1911 Arthur Holmes used radioactive decay to measure geological time to date a sample from Ceylon at 1.6 billion years old using lead isotopes.
  • In 1912 Alfred Wegner proposed the theory of Continental drift which suggested that all continents were once a giant landmass known as Pangaea which later was separated and drifted apart to form continents in their present shape. The theory also offered a possible formation of mountains. He propounded The Theory of Tectonic Plates which is based on the idea that Earth is broken into tectonic plates and these plates move in response to seafloor spreading.
  • Some of the famous geologists of India are Darashaw Nosherwan(1883-1969), Khadg Singh Valdiya, Birbal Sahani(1891-1949), Rabi Naryan Naryan Bastia, Dasika Durga Prasada Rao, and Pramatha Nath Bose(1855-1934).
  • A more integrative approach in the late 20th century saw the study of geology using considering the earth in a broader context encompassing the atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. Satellites today can take wide-scope photographs of the earth.
  • In 1972 the Landsat Program a series of satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the US Geological Survey began supplying satellite images of earth that can be geologically analyzed. The program helped to produce geologically detailed maps, locate sources of natural energy and predict natural disasters by plate shifts. 


How can you become a Geologist?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geology is one of the core STEM subjects and a minimum bachelor’s degree is required for one to become a Geologist. The course is perfect for anyone who is interested in working on projects related to earth. This also includes exploration of minerals, protection of the environment, exploration of oil, managing resources, and many more.

A job as a Geologist at the entry-level varies depending on the type of employer but here are the general Skills, duties, and responsibilities for you to become a Geologist.

  • BSc in Geology or related field
  • Must have the ability to work or have experience in various industries such as mining, environment assessment, land development, and land redemption.
  • Ability to work outdoors in the field in different environmental conditions as well as in the office to complete reports and paperwork.
  • Ready to travel extensively for projects.
  • Knowledge of geology and geological factors for the location of the worksite.
  • Ability to work in a team and share geological data within the team.
  • Excellent verbal communication to interact with the management and team.
  • Ability to collect and analyze geological information, like water, soil, or rock.
  • Ability to write detailed reports accurately.
  • Must be highly technical to design mappings or graphical representations of information collected.
  • Must comply with all safety codes and standards.
  • Must be able to use specialized databases and software to complete work tasks.
  • He must be able to understand and abide by all center, state, or local laws and codes related to geological work.


At the managerial position, you will require the following skills and duties as a Geologist or senior Geologist. It may also include the following tasks that may require years of experience:

  • A Master’s degree or Ph.D. in geology and experience in the field of work.
  • Must be able to study the relationship between work projects and environmental impact and sustainability.
  • Must be well acquainted with the methods for geological analysis and data collection that provide the least environmental impact.
  • Must be able to manage sampling and reports from entry-level geologists and provide necessary feedback and recommendations
  • Must ensure work is conducted on time and project deadlines are being met
  • Must be able to present data using a variety of media to share results of investigations with stakeholders, clients, governments, or management
  • Must be able to update skills regularly to learn new and improved methods of geological work by attending workshops and courses
  • Must be able to manage and oversee contractors, such as drillers and excavators; Must be able to ensure health and safety compliance for workers
  • He must be able to manage budgets for geological projects and order materials required
  • He must attend meetings regularly with management to provide insight into work projects and receive pertinent information
  • Must be able to provide ongoing training to staff regarding investigations and data interpretation


Geology Courses abroad

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The best countries to study Geology are

  • The U.S.A.
  • Lebanon
  • Finland


Few of the international acclaimed colleges and universities that offer specialization in Geology are:

1. South New Hampshire University


Snhu offers an online program in BS in Environmental Science and MBA in Sustainability& Environmental Compliance


2. Arizona State University


ASU offers online courses like BS in Sustainability Programs.


3. University of Phoenix

 The programs it offers are BS in Environmental Science and BS in Business with a concentration in Environmental Sustainability.


 4. John Hopkins Krieger Schools of Arts & Science

The University offers Graduate Programs in Environmental Science, Energy Policy and Climate, and GIS. 


Geology Courses in India

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

In India, many universities and colleges offer undergraduate, Postgraduate, and Doctorate degrees in Geology. One can pursue the given courses to make his career as Geologist.

  • Undergraduate Courses

Here are the UG courses:

  • Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Geology, Earth science, and Environmental science
  • Bachelor of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in Geology, Earth Science and Environmental Science 
  • Postgraduate Courses

It is a two-year duration course.

  • Master of Science (M.Sc) in Geology and  Applied Geology
  • Master of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Master of Technology in Geology and Applied Geology  
  • Doctoral Courses

Ph.D. in Geology

   Specializations in Geology

  • Economic Geology
  • Geochemistry
  • Marine Geology
  • Engineering geology
  • Structural geology
  • Volcanology
  • Mineralogy
  • Geomorphology

What are the Best colleges to study Geology in India?

Here are a few of the Best colleges in India for you to pursue your specialization in Geology.

Here are the courses offered by institutions for anyone aspiring to become a geologist.

For Graduation
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Kharagpur
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Dhanbad
  • Hans Raj College – [HRC], New Delhi
  • Annamalai University, Chidambaram
  • St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai
  • Aligarh Muslim University – [AMU], Aligarh
  • Fergusson College, Pune
  • Presidency College, Chennai
  • Jadavpur University, Kolkata
  • Bihar National College, Patna 
For Post Graduation
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Kharagpur
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Roorkee
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Mumbai
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Dhanbad
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Bhubaneswar
  • Hans Raj College – [HRC], New Delhi
  • Anna University, Chennai
  • Annamalai University, Chidambaram
  • St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai
  • Banaras Hindu University – [BHU], Varanasi


What is the Best Entrance exam for Geology in India?

Here are the entrance exams that you have to clear to get yourself a degree in Geology.

For Graduation
  • Joint Entrance Examination Main-JEE MAIN
  • Joint Entrance Examination Advanced-JEE ADVANCED
  • Common Entrance Test -CET
For Post Graduation
  • Graduate Aptitude Test of Engineering-GATE
  • Osmania University Common Entrance Test-OUCET
  • Sri Venkateswara University Common Entrance Test-SVUCET
  • Indian School of Mines Entrance Exam-ISM EE
  • Banaras Hindu Postgraduate Entrance Examination-BHU PET


Course Fees and Duration

The average cost for any course in Geology ranges between Rs10,000 to Rs 2 lacs. The cost varies from one college to another.

Course Duration Fees(annual)
Diploma in Geology 1 year Differs with the institution you are opting to pursue the course
Bachelor’s degree in Geology(B.Sc) 3 years Rs 10,000- 1 lakh
Master’s degree in Geology(M.Sc.) 2 years Rs 30,000- 1 lakh
Doctorate in Geology (Ph.D) 3 years Rs 1 lakh- 2 lakh


The Scope in Geology

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Most geologists work in Industry. They work in engineering and consulting firms, government agencies, mining companies, groundwater agencies, petroleum companies, museums, etc. Others work in higher education such as universities as lecturers, or in research in university labs and departments.

Where do Geologists work?

Here are some of the many occupations where a geology degree is beneficial.

  • Astrogeologists or planetary geologists
  • Engineering geologists
  • Environmental consultant
  • Environmental geologists
  • Geochemist
  • Geological surveyor
  • Geology professor
  • Geomorphologist
  • Geophysicist
  • Gemologist
  • Glacial geologist
  • High school science teacher
  • Hydrogeologist
  • Mineralogist


In India, the following is the list of organizations both national and international where geologists are employed:

  • Geologists Survey of India(GSI)
  • Central Ground Water Board(CGWB)
  • Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)
  • Directorate of Geology and Mining (DGM)
  • Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM)
  • Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
  • National Geophysical Institute (NGRI)
  • Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun
  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)
  • Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC)
  • National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC)
  • National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
  • Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation (MMTC)
  • National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA)
  • State Mining Corporation (SMC)
  • Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)
  • National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC)
  • Hindustan Zinc Limited
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
  • Tehri Hydro Development Corporation (THDC)
  • Mineral Exploration Authority Private sector companies
  • Hindustan Copper Limited
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
  • National Minerals Development Corporation
  • Steel Authority of India Limited.
  • Kudremukh Iron ore company


What is Geologists’s average salary?

The pay scale of Geologists depends on where he opts to work. Since there is a shortage of jobs in geology there has been a dramatic rise in the salary in the last few years.

The Median salary in the US for geologists was $93,580 in May 2020. The highest payer is the oil and gas industry with a median salary of $125,670 followed by the federal government with a median salary of $104,210.

In India, the starting salary of the Geologists ranges between Rs 2.5 lacs to Rs 3.5 lacs per annum in both the private and public sectors. In the government, the geologists can earn a salary package of approx. Rs 9.5 lacs.


Are Geologists in Demand in the Future?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The field of geology and related sciences is expected to grow at a phenomenal rate in the next few years. So in case you are interested in becoming a geologist you are looking forward to a solid career.

The demand for Geologists in the US is expected to grow to 11,400 over the next 10 years.

Despite the downturn in the mineral resources sector, there is a positive outlook for geologists in long term. In fact, the demand for geologists exceeds the supply. The demand in the field is cyclical and mirrors the price of geological commodities such as fuels, metals, and construction materials.