Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this dynamic and rewarding career

Doctors are the best things that have happened to this world. I am not saying this because we love doctors or are eager to visit them but because of their profession which is held in high esteem by society and especially in the medical community.

Doctors are revered and their profession is prestigious and highly rewarding. No doubt entry to the career as doctor is one of the most difficult career- paths for the students among all other professions.

This is the age of competition and medical entrance exams are highly competitive not only in the west but also in countries like India. You must prepare for at least a year for this exam as well as get good marks in your higher secondary school. In case you succeed in clearing the exam you will be grinded for 8 to 10 years in formal education and training to develop necessary skills  before you can call yourself a doctor. Once you become a doctor you will have to work hard to survive in the profession.

But once you have established yourself as a doctor you are rewarded in all ways. A busy life with attractive remuneration that includes all kinds of facilities like accommodation, transport, high salary and perks and what not. Many of them start their own private practice and clinics and earn even more.

Of course, the earning potential of the doctors varies depending on their experience, location, and specializations.

In this article we will explore some of the highest paid doctor’s jobs, their earning potential and the primary duties associated with each job role.

What is a Doctor?

Doctors are medical professionals who diagnose a patient’s health condition using tests and examinations. Based on their findings, they prescribe medication and treatment to heal any injuries or illnesses their patients have.

1. Cardiologist

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

A Cardiologist is a specialist doctor who diagnoses and treats diseases related to heart, veins, arteries, and blood vessels. They treat conditions like heart failure, heart attacks, and congenital and coronary heart conditions. All cardiologists are clinical cardiologists who focus on the diagnosis, medical management, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Types of Cardiologists 

  • Cardiologist Surgeon
  • ECG (Electrographic) technologist
  • Interventional cardiologist
  • Cardiac Catheterization Technologist
  • Nuclear Cardiologist
  • Cardiology Director
  • Interventional Cardiologist
  • Invasive Cardiologist

How can you become a Cardiologist?

Here is a step by step process on how to become a cardiologist in India after you have completed your high school in Physics, Chemistry and Biology with minimum 50% marks.

Step 1. 

You must first get admission to the MBBS degree from a medical college by taking a medical entrance test. It is a five-year program which includes one year of compulsory internship.

Step 2. 

You will also have to complete your Master’s in cardiology which is a three-year course.

Step 3. 

Once you have completed your D.M, you will have to complete your three doctoral courses in Cardiology and earn a MD degree in Cardiology.

Step 4 

Once you have earned a MD degree in Cardiology you can start practicing in different sectors like Government Hospitals, Private Hospitals, Specialist Hospitals, Armed Forces Medical Sciences, Cardiology Clinics. You can even start your own clinic or practisce privately.

Salary of a Cardiologist 

Entry level cardiologist: 10 lacs per annum

Cardiologist with 5 to 10 years of experience: Rs 16 lacs per annum.

Experienced Surgeon: Rs 28 lacs per annum.

Cardiologists with 20 years of experience: 37 lacs per annum


2.  Nephrologist

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

Nephrologists are doctors who treat acute and chronic kidney disorders and hypertension. They treat kidney failures caused by minerals, electrolyte and fluid imbalances. They also monitor and treat patients who require dialysis.

Types of Nephrologists 

Those of you who have completed your courses in Nephrology will have a wide range of career opportunities. Some of the job profiles are given below.

  • Nephrologist
  • Paediatric Nephrologist
  • Surgeon
  • Transplant Nephrologist
  • Urologist
  • Interventional Nephrologist
  • Dialysis Medical Officer

How Can You Become a Nephrologist? 

Candidates must complete and pass their 10+2 exam in Physics, Chemistry and Biology with a minimum of 50% to be eligible to sit the medical entrance exam (NEET).

Step 1 

You must get a MBBS degree which is a four-and-a-half-year program from a medical college after clearing the medical entrance exam.

Step 2  

You can apply for a master’s course in Nephrology which is a three-year course once you have completed your MBBS by taking an entrance exam and obtaining a good score.

Step 3

After completing your MDA in general medicine, you can apply for DM in Nephrology or DNB in Nephrology. This is a three-year course.

Step 4 

After completing your DM, you can apply for various jobs as a Nephrologist in various sectors like Research Centers, Kidney Centers, Rehabilitation centres, Dialysis Centers, Hospitals, Colleges, and Various organizations.

Salary of a Nephrologist 

  • Nephrologists earn about Rs 5 lacs to Rs 7 lacs per annum.
  • Professors in Nephrology can earn Rs 5 lacs to 7 lacs per annum.
  • Pediatric Nephrologist earns about Rs 7 lacs to 9 Lacs per annum.
  • A surgeon earns about 7 lacs to 9 lacs per annum.
  • Transplant Nephrologist earns about Rs 4 lacs to 6 lacs per annum.
  • Nephrologist Specialist also earn about Rs 4 lacs to 6 lacs per annum.
  • Urologist earns about Rs 5 lacs to 10 lacs per annum.
  • Dialysis medical officer earns 4 lacs to 6 lacs per annum.

 3.  Orthopaedic Surgeon 

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

An Orthopaedic Surgeon is a medical professional who is devoted to the prevention, treatment and diagnosis of disorders of Bones, Joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles related to movements. They can also help in treating musculoskeletal diseases like spinal diseases, sports injuries, arthritis, Tumours, infections, and Congenital disorders.They also perform arthroscopy and assist with physiotherapy.

Types of Orthopaedic Surgeon 

You can start your career in any of the following types of Orthopaedic Surgeon after completing your academics.

  • Orthopedist
  • Foot and Ankle Surgeon
  • Spine Surgeon
  • Paediatric Orthopaedic surgeon
  • Trauma Surgeon
  • Hand Surgeon

How can you become an Orthopaedic Surgeon?

To become an orthopaedic surgeon, the minimum eligibility to sit the medical exam (NEET) is to have a minimum of 50% in your 10 +2 exam in Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

Then they must fulfil the following levels of education in medical science.

  • They must get a graduate level degree in MBBS from a recognized medical college in India after clearing NEET.
  • Then they must complete a Master of Surgery (MS) in orthopaedic surgery from a recognized medical college after passing their MBBS with minimum 55% marks.
  • They can further pursue a Doctor of Osteopathic medicine degree (D.O,) or a degree of Medicine (MD).
  • Once you have completed your degrees you can apply for jobs in different hospitals, clinics, educational institutions as Orthopaedic surgeon, Clinical associate, Medical Consultant, and Orthopaedic Professors.

Salary of an Orthopaedic Surgeon

The average salary of an orthopaedic surgeon who has just started his career can range from Rs 15 lacs to Rs 20 lacs per annum. An experienced Orthopaedic Surgeon gets a salary of Rs 24 lacs to Rs 37 lacs per annum.

4.   Urologist

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

A Urologist diagnoses and treats all types of injuries to the urinary tract of female and reproductive organs of males. They treat disorders related to urinary bladder, urethra, kidney, ureters, prostate, and male reproductive organs.They diagnose diseases like kidney stones, testicular cancer, male infertility and Parkinson’s disease and provide best possible medication or surgical operation for the speedy recovery of their patient.

Types of Urologists 

Urology has a vast scope and there are seven types of Urologists depending on their specialist.

  • Paediatric Urology (Children’s Urology)
  • Urologic Oncology (Urologic Cancer)
  • Renal (Kidney) Transplant
  • Male Infertility
  • Calculi (Urinary Tract Stones)
  • Female Urology
  • Neurourology( Nervous system control of genitourinary organs)

How can you become a Urologist? 

Here are the steps for the aspiring candidates to become a Urologist

Step 1 

After completing their 10+2 in high school with minimum 50% in physics, chemistry and biology, you will have to appear and clear in a medical entrance exam (NEET).

Step 2 

After clearing NEET, you must take admission in a government recognized medical college which is a four and a half years course. After completing your MBBS you will have to undergo one and a half years of compulsory training.

Step 3 

You will have to take an admissions specialisation course in M.S.(Urology) to work as Urologist, which is a three-year course.  

Step 4 

After completing MS in Urology, you can now enrol in M.Ch which is a 3-year course for further specialisation.

Step 5 

Once you have completed your MS in Urology and get registration from Medical Council of India you can either go for M.Ch or get jobs in reputed government and private hospitals, super specialty hospitals or run your own private practice by opening your private clinic.

Salary of a Urologist 

In the government sector a urologist can earn about Rs 50,000 to Rs 60,000 per month plus other benefits like free accommodation and perks depending on his experience and expertise. However, Urologists working in corporate private sector and superspeciality hospitals can easily earn up to Rs 80,000 to Rs 100,000 per month. In case you earn your own private clinic, you can earn this much in a week’s time.

5. Neurologists

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career  

Neurologists are medical professionals who treat diseases related to the central nervous system like the brain, spinal cord and nervous system. They treat patients with ailments like stroke, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraines, Parkinson’s diseases and dementia.They consult their patients and monitor their progress to prevent the growth of neural diseases.

Types of Neurologists 

Here are the different types of Neurologists for you to pursue your specialisation.

  • Neurophysiologist
  • Neuro- muscular specialists
  • Epilepsy specialists
  • Vascular Neurologists
  • Child Neurologist
  • Geriatric Neurologist

How to become a Neurologist? 

Step 1 

You must complete 10+2 in science with Physics, Chemistry and Biology with good marks. This is the minimum eligibility.

Step 2 

You must pass the National Eligibility and Entrance Exam (NEET) and get admission to a recognized medical college to get a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) degree. This is a 5.5-year course comprising 4.5 years of classroom training and one year of rotating internship.

Step 3  

Once you have completed your MBBS degree you must now go for a postgraduate degree. You can go for either MD or DNB in Neurology. Both degrees are of 3 years duration that includes clinical rotation, Research projects and theoretical training.

Step 4 

You will have to register yourself with the Medical Council of India after completing your MD or DNB.

Step 5 

Now you can apply for various jobs as Neurologist in various Government and private hospitals according to your skills and specialisation. You can even run your own private clinic.

Salary of Neurologists 

The salary of the Neurologists with less than one year of experience in Rs 0.5 lacs per annum bur rises rapidly to Rs 10 lacs per annum as he gains experience in the span of 10 years. It rises even further depending on his experience and expertise.


Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

An Oncologist is a medical professional who tries to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer and cancer- related diseases. Oncology is the study of cancer. Oncologists work with Radiologists, surgeons and physicians to prevent treatment protocols for their patients.

Types of Oncologists 

Here are a few types of oncologists that you can become.

  • Medical Oncologist
  • Radiation Oncologist
  • Surgical Oncologist
  • Geriatric Oncologist
  • Gynecologic Oncologist
  • Hematologist
  • Neuro Oncologist
  • Paediatric Oncologist
  • Thoracic Oncologist
  • Urologic Oncologist

How can you become an Oncologist? 

To be eligible for the medical entrance exam to become an oncologist you must first complete your 10+2 in physics, chemistry and biology with good marks. Here are the steps for you to undertake to become an Oncologist. 

Step 1 

After completing your 12th, you must now prepare for the medical entrance exam (NEET) and clear it to get admission in MBBS which is a 5.5-year course including Internship.

Step 2 

After completing your MBBS you will now have to complete your master’s degree (MD in Oncology) which is a three-year course.

Step 3 

You can now go for the Doctorate degree and complete your DM (Doctorate in medicine). This again is a three-year course.

Step 4 

Once you have completed your education in oncology and gained necessary skills you will have lots of job opportunities in different sectors like Private hospitals, Government hospitals, Specialist hospitals, Cancer hospitals, and medical colleges. Plus, you can start your own private clinic once you have gained years of experience.

 Salary of an Oncologists 

The basic salary of an oncologist working in a government hospital is Rs 30,000 to Rs 50,000 per month. In the private hospitals the salary ranges from Rs 50,000 to Rs 80,000 per month. It increases many folds as you gain experience.

7. Surgeon 

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

A surgeon is a doctor that specializes in surgery. They perform operations on patients who suffer from diseases, injuries and deformities. They are supported by the whole team in the operating room who prepare and monitor tasks so that the surgeon focuses on the operation.

Types of Surgeons 

There are various specializations in surgery for you to practice as per your interest and aptitude. Here are a few types of surgeon jobs that you can become.

  • Cardiothoracic Surgeon
  • Neurosurgeon
  • Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon
  • Orthopaedic Surgeon
  • General Surgeon
  • Paediatric Surgeon
  • Urologist
  • Vascular Surgeon
  • Obstetrician and Gynecologist

How can you become a Surgeon? 

Here are the steps for you to become a Surgeon.

  • You must pass your 12th with physics, chemistry and biology securing a minimum 60%.
  • You will have to clear NEET, the medical entrance exam and get admission to a recognized medical college and complete your MBBS which is a 5.5-year course.
  • After completing your MBBS, you will have to complete your MS in surgery which is a three-year specialization course to become a surgeon.
  • After completing your MS in surgery, either you can go for 3 years super specialization M.Ch course in surgery or you can also take up a job in Government hospitals, private hospitals and super specialty hospitals.

Salary of a Surgeon 

At the entry level a surgeon can get a salary of Rs 9,71 ,000 per annum. Which can increase to approx. 11 lacs per annum with a span of 5 to 10 years and later to approx. Rs 24 lacs per annum as you gain more experience and reach a top level.

8. Pulmonologist 

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

A Pulmonologist is a physician that treats diseases related to the respiratory system which includes the lungs, airways and respiratory muscles. A Pulmonologist diagnoses and treats patients with severe and chronic breathing issues. They are experts in diagnosing and treating structural, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic respiratory disorders.  Some common conditions that pulmonologists treat are Asthma, Bronchitis, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Emphysema, Obstructive sleep apnea, and intestinal lung diseases.

Types of Pulmonologists 

Here are a few types of Pulmonologists for you to follow.

  • Chest Pulmonologist
  • Chest Specialist
  • Cardiologists
  • Neurologists

Steps to become a Pulmonologist 

Here are a few steps for you to follow to become a pulmonologist.

Step 1 

You must complete your 12th degree in Biology, physics and chemistry to be eligible for the medical entrance exam NEET.

Step 2 

After passing your NEET exam you must take admission in a government recognized medical college to pursue your bachelor’s degree of MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and a Bachelor of surgery) or BOT (Bachelor of occupational therapy) which is a 5.5-year graduate program including internship.

Step 3 

After completing your bachelor’s degree, you must now complete your master’s degree Master of Surgery (MS).

Step 4 

After completing your MS and getting a degree recognized by the medical council of India, you can get jobs in various sectors like Government hospitals, Private hospitals and private clinics.

Salary of Pulmonologist 

The average salary of a Pulmonologist is Rs 8,40, 000 per annum at the entry level and increases to Rs 14,00,000 per annum at the senior level.

9. Orthodontist 

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

An orthodontist is a dental specialist who treats and prevents dental irregularities by applying braces and other aligners to straighten and aligners to straighten teeth and fix misaligned bites.

Orthodontist provides dental services to their patients which includes

  • Crowded teeth
  • Overbites
  • Underbites
  • Misaligned teeth

Orthodontist treatment helps to improve speech, easier chewing and increased self-confidence

Orthodontist is the first recognized stream of Dentistry.

Steps to become an Orthodontist 

You can become an Orthodontist by following these steps in your career-path.

Step 1 

Complete your 12th with majors in Physics, chemistry, and Biology.

Step 2 

You will have to take admission in a Dental college to complete your bachelor’s degree in Dentistry from a college recognized by Dental Council of India. For that you will need to take the Dental Admission Test (DAT), which will access your academic knowledge. You will need to get a good DAT score to get admission to a good Dental College in  Bachelor’s of dental surgery (BDS) which is a four-year course.

Step 3 

After completing your BDS, you will have to go for your master’s in dental surgery (MDS) with specialisation in Orthodontist. MDS is offered by all reputed dental colleges in India. It is a three-year specialty course.

Step 4 

Once you have received your degree and licence from Dental Council of India you can get jobs in dentistry in various sectors like government hospitals, private hospitals and private clinics. You can also start your own clinic after a few years of experience.

Salary of an Orthodontist 

The salary of an orthodontist depends on his work experience and skills. His salary ranges from Rs 30,000 per month to Rs 100,000 per month in India depending upon location of work, years of experience, treatment purpose etc.

10. Dermatologist 

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

Dermatologists are specialists who treat skin, and skin related disorders.They treat not only skin but nails, hair, and mucous membrane conditions. Skin diseases and disorders include fungal infections, acne, eczema, vitiligo, and dermatitis. Today Dermatologists can cure about 3000 types of skin and skin related diseases.

Types of Dermatologists 

Here are some of the dermatologist job profiles that are given below.

  • Dermatopathologists
  • Immune Dermatologists
  • Tele Dermatologists
  • Paediatric Dermatologists
  • Cosmetic Surgeon

How can you become a dermatologist? 

Here are the steps you need to follow to become a dermatologist.

Step 1 

Pass your 12th in physics, chemistry and Biology with a minimum of 40%. This is the minimum eligibility to qualify for the medical entrance exam (NEET).

Step 2 

Once you have appeared and passed NEET you must get admission in a recognized medical college and complete your MBBS which is 5.5 years including your internship.

Step 3 

After completing your MBBS you will have to complete your Master (MS) in Dermatology which is 3 years.

Step 4 

You can go for specialisation for which you need to complete an M.Ch degree from a college recognized by the medical council of India.

Step 5 

You can now apply for jobs in various government hospitals, private hospitals, hair clinics, cosmetic surgery clinics etc. You can also start your private practice after gaining a few years of experience.

Salary of Dermatologist 

At the entry level a dermatologist can get a salary of Rs 10,000.00 per annum. After gaining 5 to 10 years, he can earn up to Rs 20,000,000 per annum which can go as high as Rs 33,000,00 per annum.

11. Radiologist 


A Radiologist is a licensed medical professional who specialises in medical imaging, X-Rays, Ultrasounds, CT scans, PET and MRI to detect.They help treat injuries and provide radiation therapy and interventional radiology.

Types of Radiologists 

  • Diagnostic Radiologist
  • Radiation Oncology
  • Interventional Radiologist

  Steps to become a Radiology 

You can become a Radiologist by following these steps.

Step 1 

Complete your 10+2 in Physics, chemistry and Biology to qualify for the medical entrance exam NEET.

Step 2 

Then you must get admission in a government recognized medical college to complete your MBBS which is a 5.5-year course including 1.5 years of internship.

Step 3 

Once you have completed your MBBS degree, you will now enrol for a three-year Radiology residency program. The residency programs provide you experience before you join full time as a radiologist.

Step 4 

After completing your MBBS and Residency program you will have to do your Post graduation course which can either be of three years Doctor of Medicine (MD) or of two years Diploma in Medical Radiodiagnosis (DMRD).

Step 5 

After completing your Post Graduation, you have two options.

One you can go for Fellowship and take a specialisation in Radiology like diagnostic Radiology, breast imaging Radiology, radiation oncology, gastrointestinal radiology and cardiovascular radiology. In their fellowship program candidates advance their imaging knowledge by getting trained in one of the subspecialties of Radiology. Most of the fellowship programs last for 1 to 2 years.

Secondly you can now apply for jobs as Radiologists in various hospitals both government and private, super-specialty hospitals, private clinics etc.

Salary of a Radiologist 

Like any other profession the salary of a Radiologist depends on a number of factors like years of experience, location, demography, type of specialisation and so on. The average salary of a Radiologist is Rs 92,551 per month.

12. Internal Medicine Doctors

Doctors 2023- Different career paths for this revered and rewarding career

Internal medicine physicians are experts who apply their skills and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults ranging from health to complex illness. These physicians are well trained, especially in the diagnosis of puzzling and complicated medical problems, in the ongoing care of chronic illnesses, and in caring for patients with more than one disease. These physicians also specialise in health promotion and disease prevention. They treat diseases like asthma, hypertension, diabetes and infection.

Internal medicine physicians are also called “Internists”.They however do not perform surgeries or treat children.

How can you become an Internal Medicine Doctor? 

Here are the steps for you to become an Internal Medicine Physician.

Step 1 

You must pass your 10+2 exam with physics, chemistry and biology as core subjects and 17 years of age to qualify for the medical entrance exam NEET.

Step 2 

After passing NEET you must complete your MBBS from a recognized college. It is a 5.5-year course including Internship.

Step 3 

After completing your MBBS you will have to complete your Post Graduation (MD or MS) degree from a college recognized by the Medical Council of India.

Step 4 

After completing your MD or MS you can apply jobs various Multi-specialty government and private hospitals. You can consult patients at various health clinics. You can pursue teaching in various colleges.

Salary of  Internal Medicine Doctors

After you complete your D.M. your salary at the entry level is Rs 100,000 to Rs 130,000 per month in a government hospital and Rs 1,50,000 to Rs 2,00,000 per month in a private hospital. Senior Specialists consultants with 15 to 20 years of experience get a salary of Rs 2,50,000 to Rs 12,000,00 per month.


Today we live in a world that gives us many problems, both mental and physical. We toil day and night to survive both alone and with our family in this competitive world. This battle for survival takes a toll on our body and our mental health. To work we need a healthy mind and healthy body. We need clean air, clean water, good food, hygienic conditions, proper housing and sanitation, a good work environment, and so on. These conditions are basic for our survival in a modern society.

If any of the above conditions are not met, we fall ill, which can be physical or mental. Which means we will have to meet someone who can cure us. Here the doctors come into play. Today Doctors have become an indispensable part of modern society and our life. They are our life savers. Hospitals and clinics are like temples and churches and doctors are our new Gods.




Pharmacist Career 2023 – Welcome to dynamic and enterprising world


If there is one career that has always been thriving and growing, then it is the Pharmacist Career. This is despite the fact that Pharmacists have been underestimated and have not attained recognition that should have in the medical healthcare sector where only doctors and nurses are revered.

Most have a wrong notion about Pharmacists. We see them as professionals who just sit in the chemist’s shop or Drug store and sell medicines to the customers as prescribed by the doctors. However, believe me there is much more than that and that is what we are going to discuss in this blog.

What is Pharmacy?

Pharmacy is the branch of science which teaches you the art of discovering,producing,preparing,dispensing,reviewing, researching, and monitoring medications. Its aim is to ensure safe, effective, and affordable use of medicines. It links health science with pharmaceutical science and natural science.

What is a Pharmacist?

Pharmacist Career 2023 – Welcome to dynamic and enterprising world

Pharmacists are authorized medical professionals who can legally dispense medicines to the public, based on the doctor’s prescription. They must have an excellent knowledge about the composition of drugs, their chemical, biological, and physical properties, their use, expiration dates and the manufacturing companies where they are made. The pharmacist career thrives in in hospital pharmacies, industrial R&D units, or sitting in their own drug store.


What are the types of Pharmacists? 

There are several types of pharmacists. Here are the different job roles of the pharmacist in the health and pharmaceutical industry.

  • Biochemist 

A Biochemist conducts research of the physical principles of living things and biological processes such as cell development, growth, heredity, and diseases. He conducts experiments to alter the properties of DNA, RNA, and cells to study various diseases and then develops medicines to cure them.

  • Chemist 

A chemist specializes in various areas of chemistry such as analytical, physical, and theoretical, macro-molecular, organic, medical and material chemistry.

  • Medical Sales Representatives

The job role of medical sales representatives is to market the company’s product where they work to consumers,physicians,pharmacists, and nurses, including medications, prescriptions medication, and medical equipment.

  • Clinical Research Coordinator 

Clinical Research Coordinator helps in providing plans and tracking clinical trials of experimental medications to determine their advantages and risks.

  • Drug Inspector 

Drug Inspector plays a senior level role in a career as a pharmacist. He evaluates the effectiveness, reliability, and safety of medication from its manufacture until the sale. He audits pharmaceutical shops and collects samples to confirm if synthetic drugs exist.

  • Regulatory Affairs Officer 

A Regulatory Affairs officer works for clinical,pharmaceutical,testing, and other manufactures of medicines to guarantee that the products of their organizations follow legal requirements.


 Pharmacist Job Description 

Pharmacist Career 2023 – Welcome to dynamic and enterprising world

A pharmacist plays a significant role between the doctors and medical staff. They are considered a bridge between the patient and the doctors as they deal with both.

Here are the roles and responsibilities for Pharmacists.

  • Pharmacists dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other specialists.
  • They provide information to patients about medicines and their use.
  • Pharmacists plan, monitor and evaluate drug programs.
  •  They maintain records such as pharmacy files, patient profiles, inventories etc.
  • They must order and purchase pharmaceutical supplies, medical supplies, or drugs.


How can you start a pharmacist Career?

Pharmacist Career 2023 – Welcome to dynamic and enterprising world

As the field of Pharmacist continues to evolve, providing greater scope to pharmacists, so do the skill requirements from the pharmacist by the industry. To get a pharmacist job, you need to possess some skills that can help you get a long way in your career.

  • Accuracy 

In the pharmaceutical industry it is very important to have an eye for detail. There is no room for mistakes. Human errors like filling in the wrong type of medicine for the patient can have serious consequences for him.

  • Communication skills 

Your career as a pharmacist demands excellent communication skills on your part. This is because you will have to prescribe medicines to patients without any error and later check the knowledge of it.

  • Craft Knowledge 

A pharmacist must be able to describe the medicines to the patient written in the prescription and explain to them the effect of the medicines on their bodies.

  • Multitasking 

Pharmacists must conduct many activities while may even have consequences of life and death. They have to respond to various requests, communicate with other patients, and maintain certain administrative protocols in a short time.

  • Analytical Skills 


Sometimes, even experts like pharmacists find it difficult to understand how a particular drug works on the patient’s body. They must pursue their work with an objective mind, refer to relevant references and take rational and sensible approach in medication to patients.

  • Mathematical Skills 

Most of us underestimate the importance of science and mathematics for pharmacists in their work. However, pharmacists require string mathematical skills in their work. Numerical skills are important to pharmacists in their daily work like measuring the number of dosages that a patient requires to figure out more complex variable dosages.

  • Managerial Skills 

Pharmacists require managerial skills to multitask. At the senior level, a pharmacist is responsible for coordinating technicians and vending machines as well as handling expenditures, controlling stock levels, and ensuring accurate documentation.

  • Interpersonal Management 

Pharmacists must take care of the whims and fancies of the doctors who do not want to be challenged. At the same time, they must manage the hordes of anxious patients and their family members. This requires a lot of management and organizational skills on the part of the pharmacist to avoid ugly scenes and angry outbursts.

  • Supervisory skills 

Pharmacists must be able to train their junior pharmacists as well as able to supervise them.


Education Qualifications for Pharmacists 

Pharmacist Career 2023 – Welcome to dynamic and enterprising world

To attain the above skills, one must undergo training and education to become suited for a pharmacist job requirement. You will have to pursue a formal education or training program if you want to become a pharmacist in India.

First you must complete your 10 + 2 in Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, from a recognized board.

Then you must opt for a bachelor’s degree by taking and clearing the entrance exam for pharmacy. Then you must register yourself in the state’s pharmacy council license.

You can go for higher studies in Master’s or Doctorate level if you want to do research.

Pharmacy has become one of the most sought-after professional courses in India due to the rapid growth in the pharmaceutical industry.

In India pharmacy entrance exams are conducted for the candidates who want to pursue their career in pharmacy.

However, you must appear for the pharmacy entrance exams in India to gain admission in a pharmacy college at both state and national levels.


  • Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Tests (GPAT)

GPAT is a three-hour entrance examination conducted by the National Testing Agency for entry into the Pharma Program.

  • Andhra Pradesh Engineering Agricultural and Pharmacy Common Entrance Test (EAPCET) 

One must qualify for this exam to gain admission in BPharm courses in Telangana. The exam is conducted by Jawaharlal Nehru Technical University (JNTU), Hyderabad.

  • Maharashtra Common Entrance Test (MHT CET) 

MHT CET is a state level entrance exam for admission to various engineering and pharmacy programs at various colleges throughout Maharashtra.

  • Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Examination (UPSEE-Pharmacy) 

UPSEE Pharmacy Ia an entrance exam for Pharmacy conducted by Dr APJ Abdul Kalam Technical University, Uttar Pradesh.

  • Odisha Joint Entrance Examination – Pharmacy (OJEE-P)

OJEE-P is an entrance exam for pharmacy conducted by the Odisha state government.

  • Jamia Hamdard Pharmacy, New Delhi 

Jamia Hamdard pharmacy is conducted by Jamia Hamdard university.

  • Goa Common Entrance Test (GOA CET) 

GOA CET is a common entrance exam for pharmacy conducted by the department of technical education, Goa.

  • Rajasthan University of Health Sciences (RUHS-P) 

The pharmacy exam is conducted by Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan.

  • Karnataka Common Entrance Test (KCET) 

KCET is conducted by Karnataka Examination Authority (KEA)

  • Gujarat Common Entrance Test (GUJCET) 

GUJCET is conducted by Gujarat Secondary and Gujrat Secondary Education Board (GSEB)


  • MAHE Entrance Test (MET) 

This entrance exam is conducted by Manipal Academy of Higher Education or Manipal University.

  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education (NIPER JEE) 

NIPER JEE entrance exam is conducted by National Institue of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Mohali.

  • Birla Institute of Technology and Science Admission Test (BITSAT) 

BITSAT is an entrance exam conducted to get admission in pharmacy in Birla Institute of Technology and Science.

You can go for the Diploma in Pharmacy (D. Pharm) course if you want to open your own pharmacy or drugs store. You can directly get into the second year of the Bachelor of Pharmacy course if you have already taken up this course.  

What are the best colleges for Pharmacy in India? 

According to the Accreditation council of Pharmacy education there are 144 schools and colleges of pharmacy in India in 2020. Out of this, about 84 colleges provide Master’s and Doctorate degrees in Pharmacy. After taking and clearing the entrance exam for pharmacy stated above you can get admission in various pharmacy colleges in India in both graduate and master’s level.

Let us look at a few of the top colleges of pharmacy at graduate level.

  • Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi
  • University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chandigarh
  • Institute of Chemical Technology – [ICT], Mumbai
  • Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences – [MCOPS], Manipal
  • Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research – [DIPSAR], New Delhi
  • Bundelkhand University, Jhansi
  • Bombay College of Pharmacy – [BCP], Mumbai
  • Birla Institute of Technology and Science – [BITS], Pilani
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [BHU IIT], Varanasi
  • St John’s Pharmacy College, Bengaluru (Bangalore)


Here are a few of the best colleges for you to pursue your post-graduation in pharmacy.

  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research – [NIPER], Mohali
  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research – [NIPER], Hyderabad
  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research – [NIPER], Kolkata
  • National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research – [NIPER], Guwahati
  • Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi
  • University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chandigarh
  • Institute of Chemical Technology – [ICT], Mumbai
  • Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences – [MCOPS], Manipal
  • Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research – [DIPSAR], New Delhi
  • Bundelkhand University, Jhansi


A few of the common subjects taught in a pharmaceutical course are Human Anatomy, Human Physiology, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Assurance, Drug Development, Pharmaceutical Management, Clinical Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics and Drug Testing.


In case you want to go abroad for pharmacy you can get admission by passing their entrance tests. Here are a few of the universities and colleges abroad that offer courses in pharmacy.

  • University of Oxford
  • Monash University
  • Harvard University
  • University of Toronto
  • UCL
  • University of Cambridge
  • University of Nottingham
  • University of California
  • University of North Carolina
  • University of Manchester


Are Pharmacy Intern Jobs available to Students? 

Yes, one can get an internship in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry after completing his course in pharmacy to establish a successful career as a pharmacist. Various organizations, hospitals and pharmacies employ interns with adequate skills and abilities and later for pharmacy jobs. Even higher education institutions and private nursing homes and pharmacies offer internship opportunities. You can also discover internship opportunities through online recruiting portals. Interns get hands-on knowledge and experience through internships.

What is the Scope of a Pharmacist Career?

Pharmacist Career 2023 – Welcome to dynamic and enterprising world

Pharmacy is a dynamic, versatile, growing and increasingly diverse profession. It is an exciting profession because there are so many pharmacist opportunities for service. With the phenomenal rate of advances in pharmaceutical advances, the healthcare industry has created a sea of opportunities for pharmacy professionals.

Pharmaceutical careers are one of the most rewarding careers in the developed countries. Pharmacists represent the third largest healthcare professional group in the world. In India there are 8 lakh pharmacists working in different capacities and applying their knowledge and skills.

The Pharmacists perform various tasks in the pharmaceutical industry although not in direct contact with the customers but mostly behind the scenes.

Pharmaceutical Industry in India

The Pharmaceutical Industry is one of the largest and most advanced in the developing countries. It provides employment opportunities to millions besides providing lifesaving drugs to its vast population.

In terms of value the Indian Pharmaceutical Industry ranks globally as the 13th largest market by the sales value ($54.6 billion in 2023. It will hit $57 billion in the year 2025 and $163.1 billion in 2032 exhibiting a growth rate of 12.3% in the year 2024 to 2032. It is ranked 3rd largest industry in the world in terms of sales. It accounts for 8% of the world’s sales by volume and 2% by value. India is one of the top five bulk drugs manufacturers in the world.

What are the requirements for a Pharmacist Career? 

Your career path as a pharmacist depends on the level of education you possess. For example, you can become an entry-level pharmacy clerk with a high school diploma but will require professional or Doctoral degrees in pharmacy for advanced positions and best paying pharmacist jobs.

Areas of employment for Pharmacist

Pharmacist Career 2023 – Welcome to dynamic and enterprising world

A career in pharmacy can offer you diverse areas of employment across various sectors of the healthcare industry. The pharmacist career outlook is very bright. Here are some of the key areas where pharmacists can find employment opportunities.

  • Consultant Pharmacist Jobs

Pharmacists can also work as consultants and start their own consulting firms.They can offer expertise in areas such as medication management, medication safety, healthcare quality improvement, or pharmacy business development.

  • Pharmacy Education and Academia 

Pharmacy educators play a vital role in shaping the future of the pharmacy profession.They can pursue careers in academia.They can work as pharmacy educators, teaching and mentoring future pharmacists.They contribute to curriculum development, conduct research, and provide guidance and mentorship to students.

  • Community Pharmacies Jobs 

Community or retail pharmacies are the most common setting for pharmacists. They work in chain pharmacies, independent pharmacies, or grocery store pharmacies, providing medication dispensing services, patient counselling, over the counter medication recommendations, and health screenings.

  • Hospital Pharmacy Jobs 

Hospital pharmacies employ pharmacists to provide comprehensive care within the hospital setting where they collaborate with physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals to ensure safe and effective medications to the patients.

  • Clinical Pharmacy 

Clinical pharmacists work in healthcare institutions like hospitals, clinics, and outpatient settings.They are involved in direct patient care, performing medication reviews, monitoring medication therapy, conducting drug utilisation evaluations, and providing pharmacotherapy recommendations.They also specialize in areas like cardiology,oncology,critical care,paediatrics,geriatrics,or ambulatory care.

  • Long –Term care Facilities 

Long-term care facilities include nursing homes, assisted living facilities, and rehabilitation centres. They employ pharmacists to oversee medication management for residents.

  • Pharmaceutical Industry 

Pharmacists in the pharmaceutical industry play a crucial role in ensuring drug safety, efficacy,and regulatory compliance. Here they work for various pharmaceutical companies, contract research organizations (CROs), or regulatory agencies. They contribute to drugs development, clinical research, drug safety, and monitoring, medical affairs, and pharmacovigilance.

  • Pharmacy Benefit Management 

Pharmacy benefit management companies (PBMs) hire pharmacists to manage prescription drug benefits for health insurance plans.

  • Government and Regulatory Agencies 

Government agencies such as Food and Drug Administration (F.C.A.), Centers for Disease Control, and Prevention (CDC), or the World Health Organization (WHO). employ pharmacists in roles related to drug regulation, public health, policy development, medication safety, and research.

  • Pharmacy Informatics 

Pharmacists who have expertise in pharmacy informatics work in healthcare organizations, optimizing the use of technology in medication management systems, electronic health records, and data analysis.


 Pharmacist Job Positions 

Here are a few of the pharmacy tech jobs related to the pharmacist industry that you can pursue as a career.

  • Pharmacy Clerk 

As a pharmacist clerk you will have to fill prescriptions for customers, complete cash register prescriptions for customers, complete cash register transcriptions and update patient information records.They also see that the pharmacy area is clean and well arranged.They assist pharmacists in ordering stock and entering it into inventory.

  • Pharmacy dispenser 

A pharmacy dispenser assists the pharmacist in managing inventory, placing wholesale orders, and processing paperwork. Hè selects medical drugs or devices according to the patient’s prescription order and puts them in a suitably sized container.They also update the patient’s personal and insurance information on the computer.

  • Pharmacy assistant 

Pharmacy assistant helps pharmacists with regular administrative tasks like storing prescription records, maintaining inventories, preparing invoices, auditing and ordering office supplies.

  • Pharmacy technician 

A pharmacy technician works under a licensed pharmacist in a hospital or clinic.They manage the pharmacy workstation involving medications ordered for inventory. They also keep the shelves clean, well-stocked and in neat order.

  • Pharmacist 

A pharmacist has a thorough knowledge of pharmaceutical products and their uses.They access and fill medical prescriptions for patients. They order and stock medications and arrange them properly on the pharmacy shelves.They also maintain medication and patient records.

  • Chemotherapy Pharmacist 

A chemotherapy pharmacist prepares and dispenses chemotherapy drugs that are used in cancer treatments. They are responsible for accessing the quality of these drugs and making them available to cancer hospitals and treatment centres.

  • Nuclear Pharmacist 

A Nuclear pharmacist is responsible for preparing, testing, and dispensing radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosing and treating different kinds of cancers and many other diseases. They also supervise the handling, packaging and delivery of radiopharmaceuticals. They also manage the safety of the work environment and disposal of hazardous waste materials.

  • Long term care pharmacists 

A long-term care pharmacist oversees pharmaceutical services for patients in a long-term care facility.They evaluate the patient’s health, dispense necessary medications and resolve any pharmacy-related concerns with the help of physicians, nurses and medical staff at the hospitals or clinic.

  • Staff pharmacist 

A staff pharmacist dispenses prescription orders, administers immunizations and counsels patients about how to take their medications.They analyze and interpret reports, implement and monitor safety controls, and conduct operational and quality assurance reviews. They also comply with legal policies and regulations.

  • Director of pharmacy 

The director of pharmacy oversees the pharmacy’s operations and Management. He implements strategic plans, evaluates service standards and boost performance for optimum efficiency. He makes decisions to introduce operational programs and safety policies or update existing ones.

  • Pharmacy Manager 

A pharmacy manager manages the pharmacy’s daily operations. He is responsible for providing efficient customer services, handling medications and other products and in maintaining a patient medication database.

  • Pharmacy Specialist 

A Pharmacy specialist is responsible for assembling and maintaining patient histories and reviewing them to evaluate a patients’ self care needs. He informs the patients about self-care medication, products and services.They also inform the patients about enrollment requirements and schedule meetings with appropriate medical staff and financial counselors.

  • Clinical Research pharmacy jobs 

Clinical pharmacists educate patients on proper medicine dosage and monitor them for health problems. They do this by working in cooperation with physicians and other clinical health providers.

  • Health Outcomes pharmacists 

Health outcomes pharmacist plans and implements various clinical pharmacy patient care programs like immunization services, medication therapy management programs and disease programs and disease state management. They must ensure that the pharmacy adheres to FDA regulations and follows standard operating procedures.They support and connect with patients and pharmacy staff with the help of pharmacy system information technology.They also stay updated on the new developments taking place in the field of pharmacy.

  • Pharmacologist

Pharmacologists discover and develop therapies to treat cancer and various other diseases in hospitals, bio-pharmaceutical companies and other organizations.They often collaborate with research scientists in various clinical development programs to conduct quantitative modelling, clinical trial simulations and safety tests.


Career-Path for a Pharmacist


The pharmacist career path can be divided into two steps.

  • Junior Pharmacist 

A Junior Pharmacist is an entry level professional who verifies the dosage of the medication prescribed and checks the side effects of the medications on the patient. He educates the patient on how and when to take the medicines and its side effects.

The average salary of a Junior Pharmacist ranges from 0.2 lakhs to 3.5 lacs per annum with an average salary of Rs 2 lacs per annum.

  2. Senior Pharmacist 

A senior pharmacist is an experienced professional who reviews the safety levels of newly manufactured drugs. He also recommends drugs with proper diets and the dosage of each medicine to the patients.

The average salary of a senior pharmacist is around 3 lacs per annum.


The Future of Pharmacist 

The pharmaceutical sector in India is rising at a fast rate. There has been a spurt in foreign investment in this sector. Cheap labour and low production cost in the main factors for this growth compared to western countries.

The field of pharmacy continues to evolve providing pharmacists with diverse and expanding career paths across the healthcare industry. And you must have a very good educational background to be a part of this evolving industry.




















Astronautical Engineer 2023– How you can be part of this Dynamic and Exhilarating career?


We have come a long way from the day we sent our first man-made satellite to Space. The satellite was named Sputnik. It was launched on October 4,1957.  Since then, we have never looked back at launching satellites. We sent Satellites and men to Space and Moon. We have sent satellites to Mars, to the Sun and outside our solar system to explore new horizons. Every success is a victory to human civilization irrespective of the country which sends the satellites. And all victories and failures are owed to the scientists that manufacture these satellites and the delivery systems to send them to outer space. These scientists or engineers are known as Astronautical Engineers or Rocket Engineers or Space Scientists.

Today we are going to discuss more about Astronautical Engineers and how to become one in this article.

What is Astronautical Engineering?

Astronautical Engineering or Rocket Science aerospace engineering is a subset of Aerospace engineering. It focuses on developing advanced technologies for aviation, space and airborne defense systems.

What is the Difference between Astronautical and Aeronautical Engineering

The two main branches of Aerospace engineering are Astronautical engineering and Aeronautical engineering. While Astronautical Engineering is the study of spacecraft and satellites, Aeronautical Engineering specializes in aircraft that operate within the Earth’s atmosphere.

What is an Astronautical Engineer?

Astronautical Engineer 2023-- How you can be part of this Dynamic and Exhilarating career?

Astronautical Engineers create and maintain systems and devices that help in broadcasting,communication,navigation and remote sensing.Astronautical Engineers design and develop rockets,satellites,missiles,planetary probes, space capsules and other machines designed to operate in space.They also analyze, and troubleshoot the designs of rockets and satellites to identify any problems with manufacturing processes, optimize the design process and create quality control standards while adhering to environmental regulations. Astronautical engineers innovate and create new ideas within the industry that affect the development of both space and Earth based travel. Astronautical Engineers are also called Rocket Scientists.

What do Astronautical Engineers do?

Most astronautical engineers work for Government organizations and companies contracted by the government, private contractors building spacecraft or spacecraft manufacturers. Many Astronauts have astronautical engineering backgrounds even though they are not technically astronautical engineers.

Here is the Astronautical engineers’ job description.

  • They coordinate with engineering personnel who are involved in the development, testing, or modification of spacecraft and its relevant components.
  • It is their duty to determine whether the proposed projects meet the defined goals.
  • They set the criteria for quality control standards and design methods.
  • They design and manufacture spacecraft products.
  • It is their responsibility to ensure that projects meet quality standards.
  • They must evaluate designs to ensure that the products meet the customers’ requirements.
  • They identify and rectify the problems and solutions in the products.
  • They maintain detailed documentation of equipment and performance.

How can you become an Astronautical Engineer?


Astronautical Engineer 2023-- How you can be part of this Dynamic and Exhilarating career?

You require certain skills to become an Astronautical Engineer which can be developed for career advancement and growth. Here are a few of the engineering skills that you must possess to succeed in the aeronautical engineering industry.

  • Communication Skills

Since aeronautical engineers work in large teams, they require excellent communication skills for their work to stay consistent and synchronized. All the essential information must be relayed clearly and promptly to make it error free.

  • Writing Skills

Aeronautical engineers must also possess excellent writing skills to be concise and must be able to document their document and process for further reference

  • Analytical Skills

Strong Analytical skills help aeronautical engineers to evaluate designs and help them to identify and improve aspects that may not meet performance standards.

  • Computer-aided design (CAD)

Aeronautical engineers must work on computers using CAD programs to develop and test designs. This skill is necessary for them.

  • Mathematical Skills

Maths is an essential element of engineering as it allows them to create a design that functions. Astronautical engineers use calculus, trigonometry, and algebra during their work.

  • Critical thinking

This skill is necessary for astronautical engineers to update their designs regularly to meet new demands and understand how to resolve issues under labor or time constraint.They must be able to find problems within design elements and plan strategies to improve those elements and reduce the risk of complication.

  • Business Knowledge

Astronautical engineers must have working knowledge of commercial law and standard practices to adhere to regulations and policies laid down by the government or businesses.

  • Stress Tolerance

Aeronautical engineers must practice and master stress management as they will have to work long hours daily and under constant pressure to meet their deadline.

Educational Requirements

Astronautical Engineer 2023-- How you can be part of this Dynamic and Exhilarating career?

You must start early after 10th  if  you want to pursue your career in space or Astronautical engineering. You must fulfil the following criteria to pursue your career as an astronautical engineer.

The subjects required for aerospace engineering are Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics (PCM) in class 12th.

You must go for an astronautical engineering degree. For that you will have to search for colleges that offer astronautical engineering.

You must complete a bachelor’s in aerospace engineering. Some of the main subjects that you will learn in your bachelor’s degree are aerodynamics, space dynamics, dynamics of aerospace systems, space system designs etc. Here are some of the best colleges for astronautical engineering courses at the bachelor’s level.

  • Kent State University, USA, BS Aerospace engineering
  • Warsaw University of Technology, Poland, B.Sc Aerospace Engineering
  • Carleton University, Canada, Bachelor of Aerospace Engineering
  • Embry Riddle Aeronautical University, USA, BS in Aerospace Engineering
  • University of Southampton
  • Swansea University, UK, Bachelor of space engineering
  • Lewis University, US, BS Aviation, and Aerospace Technology.

You can go for a master’s and PH.D. degree in fields like geophysics, geo-informatics, instrumentation, applied mathematics, etc. For an MSc in aerospace engineering, you must focus on a specialized degree. Many institutions offer five-year programs that offer both bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Here are some of the top astronautical engineering colleges that offer master courses in astronautical engineering.

  • Technical University of Berlin, Germany
  • Wright State University, USA
  • Technical University of Denmark, Denmark \
  • IPSA, France
  • The Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Russia
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
  • University of Limerick, Ireland
  • Beijing Institute of Technology, China
  • University of New south Wales, Australia

After completing a master’s degree, you can either become an astronautical engineer by applying for positions with the organizations of your choice or you can pursue research in the field by joining a Doctorate program (PH. D,) in aerospace engineering and contribute to the field. Below are some of the best universities in astronautical engineering for PhD are given below.

  • University of Manchester, U.K.
  • Kyushu University, Japan
  • Auburn University, USA
  • University of Glasgow, United Kingdom
  • Politecnico Di Milano, Italy

How can you become Astronautical Engineer in NASA

Astronautical Engineer 2023-- How you can be part of this Dynamic and Exhilarating career?


NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the US space agency that is responsible for civilian space programs, aeronautics, and space research. It is the premier space research organization in the world and is an inspiration to every space scientist or rocket engineer to be part of this organization. However, there are some eligibility requirements that must be fulfilled to become a NASA aerospace engineer.

Firstly, you must be a US citizen. Secondly, you must have a degree in STEM courses with two years of professional experience in related fields. Only your application is reviewed by NASA’s Astronaut Selection Board. If you are selected then you are called into small groups for interviews at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Based on the interviews, final applicants are selected.

In case you are a non-US citizen you can work in NASA’s International Space Partner.

  • Agência Espacial Brasileira (AEB)
  • Italian Space Agency
  • Brazilian Space Agency
  • Canadian Space Agency
  • German Aerospace centre (DLR)
  • European Space Agency
  • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
  • Russian Federal Space Agency

Here are a few of the colleges where you can pursue your astronautical engineering degree to get into NASA.

  • California Institute of Technology, US
  • Stanford University, US
  • University of Cambridge, UK
  • Harvard University, US
  • University of Oxford, UK
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US
  • Princeton University, US
  • ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  • University of California, US
  • Georgia Institute of Technology, US


How to become an Astronautical Engineer in ISRO

Astronautical Engineer 2023-- How you can be part of this Dynamic and Exhilarating career?

ISRO or Indian Space Research Organization is the Indian space agency and is one of the premier space research organizations in the world. ISRO is one of the top space agencies in the world that can deploy cryogenic engineers,launch extraterrestrial missions, and artificial satellites. Recently it successfully launched a land rover on the moon and has also sent its satellite to the Sun.

Educational Qualifications

To become an astronautical engineer in ISRO you must have the following educational qualifications.

  • Individuals must pass BE/BTech or equivalent degree in first class from an astronautical school with an aggregate minimum of 65% marks or CGPA of 6.84 out of 10.
  • Individuals who are awaiting results of their seventh and eighth semesters can also apply given their aggregate marks in the remaining semesters is 65% and above or CGPA/CPI is 6.84 and above.
  •  Individuals who have passed or a pursuing ME/MTech are eligible given that they have cleared their BE/BTech in first class with a minimum of 65% aggregate.
  • Further education like a PhD or equivalent in Physics or Mathematics is beneficial for carrying independent research in the field of Rocket science.

To become a Rocket scientist in India you must complete your degree in Aerospace engineering or Astronautical engineering from one of these colleges given below.

  • Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru
  • Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
  • Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bengaluru
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur
  • Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
  • Manipal Institute of Technology
  • Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra
  • Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Kerala
  • Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Nainital
  • Madras Institute of Technology, Chennai
  • International Institute for Aerospace Engineering and Management, Jain University Bengaluru
  • Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune
  • National Centre for Radio Astronomy, Pune
  • Centre for Earth and Space Sciences, (University of Hyderabad)
  • Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad
  • Radio Astronomy Center, Ooty
  • Raman Research Institute, Bengaluru
  • Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science

What is the Scope of an Astronautical Engineer?

Astronautical Engineer 2023-- How you can be part of this Dynamic and Exhilarating career?

In India there are many astronautical engineering companies where you can pursue your career. Here is the list of companies working in the sector of space technology, directly or indirectly. Directly means making rockets, spacecrafts, launchers, satellites etc. Whereas indirectly means developing supporting systems and tools for the above things. Here is the list of the companies that offer astronautical engineering jobs.

State Owned

  • ISRO- Launch vehicles, Rocket engines
  • Spacecraft Technology Rocket boosters
  • Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) — Transport aircraft, Fighter aircraft, Helicopters, Crew capsule
  • Antrix Corporation – Satellite systems, Launch vehicles, Technology, and consultancy
  • New Space India Limited – Satellite systems, Launch vehicles, Technology, and consultancy.

Private Companies

  • Godrej Aerospace—Rocket engines
  • Spacecraft thrusters, Larsen & Toubro – Rocket booster
  • Spacecraft, Space infrastructure
  • Aginkul Cosmos – Launch vehicles
  • Bellatrix vehicles, Dhruva Space- satellites.
  • Pixxel- Earth imaging satellites
  • Satellize—Satellites
  • Skyroot Aerospace- Launch Vehicles
  • Manastu Space- Satellites and spacecraft components


What is the Astronautical Engineering salary?

NASA aerospace engineer’s average salary is $122,270 per year as per the Bureau of Labor Statistics. NASA is the major employer of Aerospace engineers in the world and employs engineers in 20 different categories.

In India, the salary of an Astronautical engineer varies for different grades. The aspirants who get the job in ISRO receive a monthly payment of at least INR 15,600 – 391,00 per month or Rs 800,000 per year for the posts of senior scientists and engineers.

The aerospace industry is growing at the rate of 3% per annum.

There are different fields of science in ISRO where the scientists and engineers work that handle research, development, application and execution of different projects and missions, such as launch of satellites or planet observation.

  • Space and Technology
  • Electronics
  • Mechanical
  • Computer science
  • Civil
  • Refrigeration and air conditioning
  • Architecture

Job Profiles of Aerospace engineer

Graduates in aerospace engineering have many career options to choose from the list given below.

  • Mechanical engineers

You can work as a mechanical engineer in the field of aviation and aircraft once you have completed your engineering in Aerospace. You can improve or make various components of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles to operate them more effectively.

  • Aerospace Technician

Aerospace Technicians install, maintain, test and fix machinery that is in use or being developed.  and research teams Airlines, aerospace, and aviation industries and research these technicians.

  • Aircraft/Spacecraft Designer

Aircraft and spacecraft designing that are safer and more effective is a coveted career choice among aerospace engineers. Their demand has increased due to a rise in commercial air travel and the advent of private space trips.

  • Inspection Managers

Inspection managers help the finished product pass inspection by noting inconsistencies and advising motivations. They examine test findings, weigh goods, and keep track of information regarding production standards.Thus they ensure that all systems, equipment, and products adhere to national and international standards.

  • Mission Specialist

Mission specialists assist with data collection, experimentation and other vital tasks during space missions.They are required to install or use a piece of equipment throughout the mission.

  • Drafters

Before any spaceship, aeroplane or missile can be manufactured, drawings and specification documents must be created. These intricate and thorough texts depict the subject topics from all angles and are created by the Drafters.

  • Aviation Manager

The operation of launch and control facilities for aircraft and spacecraft are handled by the aviation managers.They manage equipment maintenance, track incident reports, arrange inspections, hire team managers and contractors, establish policy plans, and prepare timetables.


Although astronautical space engineering in India is still in its infancy stage despite the success and achievements of I.S.R.O,. India is experiencing an accelerated expansion in the astronautical industry. Career opportunities for aerospace engineers are endless due to their demand in both domestic and overseas markets.



Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world

Water Treatment Plant operators have a critical role to play in our daily life as water is one of the most essential basic elements to life on earth. The other one is air. We drink water to survive. Almost 2/3rd of our planet is covered with water making it the only living planet in the entire universe till date. That is why it is called the blue planet. Explorations are being made to the Moon and Mars in search of water so one day we can colonize them.

Before the Industrial revolution in all the countries at different points of time, beginning with England, we used to have pure and clean water to drink from lakes and rivers. The rapid industrialization led to the growth of modern cities which are grossly overpopulated and dirty. The lack of sufficient clean water has led to the degradation of life in these cities. The industries have poured millions of tons of pollutants into the water resources like rivers and reservoirs which are lifeline to these cities, making it undrinkable.

The government along with the water treatment plant operators has taken various steps to ensure sufficient and clean water for people in these cities. The creation of water reservoirs and means to deliver drinkable water to the people in their homes is one of the most important tasks undertaken in cities.

This article will help us understand the whole process and the role of water treatment plant operators.

The Water Treatment Plant Process

Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world

The raw water from the water reservoir is delivered to the head works of the water treatment plants. The operation of the water treatment plant process in power plant consists of five major unit processes to make the water safe for drinking. These five major unit processes are given below.

  1. Chemical Coagulation
  1. Flocculation
  1. Sedimentation
  1. Filtration
  1. Disinfection 

Step 1. Chemical Coagulation

An oxidant Chlorine dioxide that is used to break down organic matter such as decaying leaves and other plant material is added to the raw water. Then a chemical coagulant Aluminium Sulphate is used as a primary coagulant. A polymer is also added to the water as a coagulation aid. These coagulants are added at the rapid mix unit. The coagulants cause very fine particles to clump together into larger particles which can be removed later in the treatment process by settling,skimming,draining and filtering.

Step 2. Flocculation 

The coagulated water then flows to the next major unit process known as Flocculation. This process is a slow process that causes the small, coagulated particles to form floc. The floc formed creates a surface in which the particulates in the water adsorb to the surface of the floc thus forming larger settleable particle for ease off removal by sedimentation and filtration.

Step 3. Sedimentation 

The flocculated water then flows to the next major unit process, the Sedimentation process. This process removes suspended solids or particles that are heavier than water and reduces particulate load on the filters. This process removes ninety percent of the solids in the water. The clearer water on the surface is collected in the launder tubes that direct the water to the filter to remove the remaining ten percent of solids.

Step 4. Disinfection 

The settled water then flows from the Pre-Sedimentation building to the filtration facility after adding chlorine to the water to begin the disinfection process. This process is designed to kill or inactivate most microorganisms in water like bacteria, viruses or intestinal parasites that causes diseases like gastroenteritis, typhoid, cholera etc.

Step 5. Filtration 

Now the water flows into the filtration facility and onto the last of the major unit processes used to treat drinking water.Filtration is the process of passing water through material such as bed of coal, sand or other granular substance to remove impurities that are not removed during sedimentation process.The water treatment plant uses rapid rate multi-media gravity filter beds.When the filters start to get full of particles, the water treatment plant operators clean them using a procedure called backwashing. The backwash water is sent to the backwash recovery pond, and after the settling process, the backwash water is returned to the raw water settling pond for re-use.

What is a Water Treatment Plant Operator?

Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world

A water treatment plant operator is responsible for ensuring the safety and quality of drinking water that is supplied to homes and businesses. It is their responsibility to operate and maintain various equipment and processes in water treatment plants such as sedimentation,filtration and disinfection..Thus water treatment plant operators play a critical role in ensuring safety to public health by keeping drinking water safe for consumption.

Water Treatment Plant Operators are also known as:
Wastewater Operator Wastewater Operator Waste Water Treatment Plant Operator Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator Wastewater Treatment Operator.

Roles and Responsibilities of Water Treatment Plant Operator 

Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world

Water treatment plant operators have a range of duties and responsibilities in ensuring the safety and quality of water supply to the public.Here are some of the main duties and responsibilities off water treatment plant operators.

  • Operating and maintaining water treatment equipment 

It is the duty of Water treatment plant operators to ensure the proper operation and maintenance of equipment such as pumps, filters and chemical treatment systems.They must be proficient in handling computerised control systems.

  • Monitoring Water Quality 

Water treatment plant operators are responsible for monitoring the quality of the water being used, including parameters like pH,turbidity and chlorine levels.

  • Conducting Laboratory tests 

The treatment operators conduct laboratory tests on water samples  like bacteriological, chemical and physical analysis, to monitor water quality and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.

  • Maintaining Records 

The operators maintain detailed records of water treatment activities, including water quality data, equipment maintenance logs, and regulatory compliance records.

  • Responding to emergencies 

Water treatment plant operators must be able to make quick decisions and respond quickly and effectively in dealing with emergency situations such as equipment failures,power outages, and water quality issues.

  • Ensuring Compliance with regulations 

It is the responsibility of the water treatment operators to ensure that their plant is in compliance with all applicable environmental and safety regulations, including those related to water quality,hazardous materials handling, and wastewater discharge.

What are types of Water Treatment Operators?

Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world


There are different types of water treatment plant operators having different levels of responsibility and expertise.The three main types of expertise are given below.

  • Entry-level operators 

Basic tasks such as monitoring equipment,recording data, and conducting routine maintenance are done by the Water treatment plant operator trainee.They work under the supervision of more experienced operators.

  • Intermediate level operators 

Operators with more experience and responsibility are called Intermediate operators.They are responsible for operating and maintaining a variety of equipment,conducting laboratory tests and responding to emergency situations.They also train and supervise entry level operators.

  • Senior level operators 

Senior level operators has the most experience in the field.They are responsible for maintaining and operating the plant,ensuring regulatory compliance and managing compliance.They are responsible for developing and implementing new processes and procedures to improve efficiency and water quality.

How to become a Water Treatment Plant Operator? 

Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world
Aerial view of industrial sewage treatment plant

Like other occupations, water treatment plant operators also require some specific skills from you to succeed in your career.Here is a list of skills that you may require to learn and understand wastewater treatment process and operations.

  • Mechanical Proficiency 

Water treatment plant operator must have the ability to fix mechanical issues regarding equipment,systems, and company transportation.

  • Communication 

The water treatment operator must have verbal and written communication skills. These skills help them in drafting their reports,guiding their colleagues and explaining the water treatment systems to other professionals.

  • Teamwork 

Since the water treatment operators have to. work as a team they must possess excellent teamwork skills

  • Observation 

Water treatment operators require strong observation skills as this helps them to closely monitor water treatment systems and notice any changes.

  • Knowledge of engineering 

Water treatment operators require engineering skills to create better treatment systems and improve on existing ones.

  • Problem-Solving 

This skill helps water treatment operators to troubleshoot problems regarding equipment,systems,treatment formulas and create innovative and effective solutions.

  • Reading comprehension 

Water Treatment operators require strong comprehension skills to analyse and record metre readings.

  • Adaption 

Water treatment operators must be able to adjust their  practices with technology. They must be able to operate new equipment and incorporate new technology into their daily operations.


Educational Qualification of Water treatment Plant Operator

Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world

You need a combination of education,experience and  certification  to become a water treatment plant operator.You can follow these steps to meet the general qualifications of a water treatment operator.

Step 1: Complete your High school  

This is the minimum water treatment certification requirement for you in your journey to become a water treatment plant operator.

Step 2: Complete your Graduation 

Although this qualification is not compulsory yet in the present context a degree in graduation or equivalent can increase your chances in career growth and earn more.

Step 3: Earn a certification 

Most employers prefer professionals to earn a water treatment plant operator certification of the trade.Certification is necessary for the water treatment  operators in order to operate equipment and process. Certification also ensures that these professionals have necessary skills and manage to maintain safe and clean water for the public.

Step 4: Receive on-the-job training 

Water treatment plant operator training  is necessary to get practical experience of this job.

Step 5: Apply for jobs 

Once you have education, experience and certification you can have water treatment plant operators.

Here are few of the colleges that offer certificate course for the candidates

  • IIT Roorkee, Roorkee
  • Khatu Shyam Institute of Management & Technology, New Delhi
  • Mahatma Jyotiba Phule University, Jaipur
  • Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur
  • Patna University, Patna
  • Vardhman Mahaveer Open University,Kota
  • Teri University, New Delhi
  • Suvidha Institute of Technology, Mumbai
  • Rashtriya Bahat University,Mohali
  • Rashtriya Technical University


What is the Scope of a Water Treatment Plant Operator? 

Water Treatment Plant Operator 2023- Welcome to the Water world


Even today about 2 billion people in the world use untreated drinking water or get water from contaminated sources. This results in spread off widespread diseases as we have discussed above in the article.

Since the role of water treatment plant operator becomes very critical as they are following the principle of “Prevention is better than cure”, there is a huge demand of water treatment operators all over the world.The rapid urbanization has led to the growth and creation of more towns and cities leading to the increasing demand of clean and drinkable water.This has created a demand for more water treatment plants to supply clean water.This rise in demand has contributed to the rise in the demand of  water treatment plant operator jobs.

In India with a population of more than 1 billion and still growing there is an ever increasing demand for water treatment plant operators.

Water treatment plant operators job description 

Here is the description of the Job Profiles of the water treatment plant operators.

  • Water Resource Specialist 

Water Resource Specialists design or implement programs and strategies related to water resource issues such as supply,quality, and regulatory compliance issues.They also conduct investigations on matters such as water storage,wastewater discharge,pollutants,permits, or other compliance and regulatory issues. Their average salary is about Rs 3,80,000 per annum.

  • Water Efficiency Technicians 

Water treatment plant technicians are intermediate-level water treatment plant operators.They are responsible for water treatment and distribution systems. They also maintain water treatment equipment and water distribution systems.They have an average salary of Rs 5,20,000 per annum.

  • Water Resource Manager 

Water resource managers plan for water use and treatment.They are employed by the government like the municipal corporation or can work independently.Their average salary is around Rs 8,86,000 per annum.

  • Environment Manager 

Environment managers are responsible for supervising the performance of the private,public and voluntary sectors.Environmental managers earn about Rs 8,95,00 per annum.

The average salary of a water treatment plant operator in India is Rs 420,000 per annum.

Top Paying companies for water treatment plant operators in India 

  • Thermax Limited Water Treatment Plant.
  • Dr Reddy’s water treatment plant.
  • SIMA Labs water treatment plant.
  • R.G. Technosolutions water treatment plant.
  • Ion Exchange water treatment plant.
  • Tata Steel water treatment plant operator.
  • Sodexo water treatment plant.
  • Sun Pharmaceuticals Limited.
  • Akums Drugs & Pharmaceuticals limited.


The industries that employ water treatment plant operators are given below.

  • Engineering & Construction
  • Industrial Machinery
  • Pharma
  • Waste Management
  • Auto Components


The career of a water treatment plant operator is not only rewarding but it assumes a responsibility towards our society. By providing clean and pure water to the people in society we are doing a great service to our nation as a whole. As far as career is concerned the scope of water treatment plant operators will keep on growing as more and more water treatment plants  are set up due to ever increasing demand of drinkable water as a result of increasing population and growth of modern cities and towns.





Stockbrokers 2023– Welcome to the dynamic world of bulls and bears

Today we are witnessing an economic turn that none of us has ever witnessed before. The Covid 19 has left its mark with enormous blackouts and shutdowns all over the globe that resembled a word war. Yet few of us saw a light at the end of the tunnel. That light was provided by Stockbrokers. The rallying off the share market to new heights in the stock market is the turning point of the Indian economy into a well-developed economy when every other economy, even those off west faltered in the face of the epidemic.

Stockbroking and Stockbrokers

Stockbrokers 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic world of bulls and bears

Stockbroking is the process of buying and selling stocks or other securities. The people who do stockbroking are called Stockbrokers.

Stockbrokers are agents or traders who trade stocks on the behalf of their investors in return for the commission they get from their clients. They are also called securities sales agents and commodities sales agents.

The place where Stockbrokers do the trading is called the Stock Market. Some of the stock trading platforms are Sensex, National Stock Exchange in Mumbai, New York Stock Exchange, or NIKKIE in Tokyo. Nowadays they can trade on computers through online stock trading also.

Stockbrokers provide a variety of services to their individual clients, companies, or organizations. They give advice concerning current or prospective investments, as well as assistance in portfolio investments. As a stockbroker you must be familiar with the wide range of products available in the stock market. They must be able to analyze company finances and provide recommendations regarding public offerings, mergers, and acquisitions.

Types of Stockbrokers

Stockbrokers 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic world of bulls and bears

1. Full-Service stockbroker

A Full-service stockbroker provides personal service to his or her clients like providing them with necessary information and recommendations for trading based on personalized research. They also provide information to their clients that is available to brokerage services.

Full- time broker work at a full-service firm such as Banks or financial companies like JP Morgan Stanley, Merril Lynch. The Brokers are provided with a comprehensive training package that includes sales & product training as well as education in administrative procedures and compliance regulations.

2. Discount Stockbroker

A Discount Stockbroker takes orders from the clients. He does not offer any advice, analysis or research services. Discount broker firms are geared to providing effective services for walk-in clients and usually pay their brokers a flat salary.

Discount stockbrokers have a much broader base of experience than many full-service brokers. They are expected to provide a broad array of research and services, including basic technical and fundamental analysis,rollovers,stock options, margin accounting,derivatives,bond-ladders,mutual funds, closed-ended funds, partnerships,charitable gifting, exchanges, and many other areas of investment, retirement, and charitable planning.

3. Bank Stockbrokers

Technically, bank stockbrokers who work at banks are full-service brokers. However, they are often given lower payouts on their commission in return for having access to the bank’s customer base.

At one time, Bank brokerage positions were viewed as dead-end jobs that were available to brokers who failed everywhere else. However, lately this perception has disappeared with the growth of this segment.

Most banks now employ in-house investment consultants who offer non-FDIC insured products and services. Many banks are now asking their brokers to cultivate clients from outside the bank. Brokers often must make an extra effort to get their clients to understand what they offer.

What is the Role of a Stockbroker?

Roles and Responsibility of a Stockbroker


Most of you who opt for a career as a stockbroker will be required to work in an office environment.  A stockbroker job description includes keeping an eye on the stock market daily and measuring the changes in stocks & shares. He is required to sell and buy stocks on behalf of his company and make profitable investments for his clients.He is responsible for managing stock portfolios. He must be able to analyze the stock market and make future predictions. Here are the roles and responsibilities of a stockbroker.

  • Customer Service

The stockbroker’s job description includes creating his own client list irrespective of the size of the work where he works and must spend most of the time in customer recruitment and customer service. His work involves calling his clients and follow-up. He must be able to maintain a long and trustful relationship with his respective clients. He is required to update their portfolios and look for investment opportunities.

  • Advisory

A stockbroker must disclose the correct information about investment recommendations and risks involved in it.

  • Trading

Stockbrokers are responsible for trading stocks, buying, and selling them on behalf of their clients. Trading is done electronically or on the physical trading floor or by phone.

  • Fiduciary Duty

Since a stockbroker’s earnings are mostly commission based, he is liable to follow the rules laid down by the regulatory authorities to avoid conflict with his clients.

How to become a Stockbroker?

Stockbrokers 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic world of bulls and bears

In case you really want to become a stockbroker, you must possess or attain certain skills to become a stockbroker. Here are some of the essential stockbroker skills that are required for you to become a stockbroker.

  • Research and Critical thinking skills

As a stockbroker must possess problem-solving skills and must have the ability to identify and mitigate risk factors to generate profits as a stockbroker. You must be able to analyze, research and find solutions to challenges that could pose problems for making returns. Similarly critical thinking skills are necessary for analyzing various trade factors and making decisions that can affect the outcome of investments.

  • Communication skills

Stockbrokers must possess excellent written and verbal skills to work effectively. They must be able to convert mathematical and statistical data into understandable information which are essential for portfolio management and analyzing investment strategies.

  • Strategic Planning

Traders must make strategic decisions regarding the securities they buy and sell.They must have the ability to analyze and plan for investment and trading strategies to be successful. You must be able to plan the best strategies for purchasing stocks, reduce risks, and generate profits while working in a Brokerage firm.

  • Wealth Management

To be a successful broker you must be able to leverage industry knowledge to help your clients maintain and accumulate financial wealth. You must stay up to date on current investment opportunities to give them the best possible advice.

  • Mathematical skills

You must possess excellent mathematical skills and must be able to calculate percentages, dividends, and profits quickly to be able to stay competitive in the stock market.

  • Persuasion Skills

As a stockbroker you must be able to persuade your clients to listen to you and convince them with their recommendations.

  • Technical Skills

Stockbrokers must possess technical skills like the ability to use computer software and digital trading applications regularly in their career. He must have thorough knowledge to compute statistics on company stocks and analyze options.


Educational Qualifications to become a Stockbroker

Stockbrokers 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic world of bulls and bears

Like any other profession you require an appropriate level of education to fulfill stockbroker job requirements. For most of us this may mean an undergraduate degree. But we must complete a graduate program to improve our marketability and increase advancement opportunities. Stockbrokers and traders who have earned a master’s degree are coveted a lot in the industry and earn more money than those without one. You must also possess a license to work in this field.

Here are the steps for you to take to become to become a Stockbroker:

Step 1: You must enroll in a relevant undergraduate degree program

Step 2: You must complete an internship with a financial or brokerage firm.

Step 3: You must find a Professional Employment and Join a Professional Organization.

Step 4: You must Register as a representative of your firm with FINRA.

Step 5: You must complete an accredited Master’s of Business Administration Degree


Step 1: You must enroll in a relevant undergraduate degree program 

Most entry level stockbroker and trader positions only require an undergraduate degree. This field does not require a specific major, so you can choose a degree option that suits your specific interests. However, you must major in finance or a business-related subject like accounting,business,finance or economics. These courses are generally preferred by employers, especially large firms. Online programs are also available.

Step 2: Complete an Internship with a Financial Firm

You must apply for an internship as an undergraduate student to gain invaluable experience. Many large and small brokerage firms and investment banks frequently hire summer interns and later offer full time employment to the successful students.

These internships offer a variety of benefits to the students in their career path to become stockbroker and trader like Real world training and work experience, opportunities to apply academic theory and best practice, gaining experience in working with a financial team, Skills development, Networking, and gaining access to potential professional mentors.

Step 3: You must find a Professional Employment and Join a Professional Organization

Unlike other professions, stockbrokers and traders must first find employment before they can get their license. Therefore, you will have to search for jobs immediately after completing your graduation.

Students and new professionals must strongly consider joining a professional organization. These organizations are available at State, national and international level. The members get exclusive benefits like resources,discounts,training,certification programs and networking opportunities.

Here are some of the prominent professional associations and societies for stockbrokers and traders.

  • Association of national exchange members of India (ANMI)
  • National Association of Stockbrokers (NAS)
  • National Stock Exchange (NSE)
  • International Business Brokers Association (IBBA)
  • National Association of Investment Professionals (NOIP)

 Step 4: You must Register as a representative of your firm with SEBI.

Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the protective, regulatory and development authority of Stock and Derivatives market in India. Every brokerage and Investment firm must register itself with SEBI to start their business in Indian stock market.

Step 5: You must complete an accredited Master’s of Business Administration Degree

Most Stockbrokers’ careers can receive a tremendous boost if they choose to pursue a degree or diploma course in Master of Business Administration (MBA) or obtain a degree in Chartered accountant (CA) or Chartered of Financial Analyst (CFA). A MBA degree in finance is greatly preferred by employers and can help the candidates to reach a higher position in stockbrokers. It entitles them to more advancement opportunities, better compensation, and large signing bonuses when hired.

Here are the 7 Best degrees for Stockbrokers that can help them in their career growth.

1.Business Administration and Finance

Business administration with a specialization in finance is the first choice for entering the stock market as a stockbroker. The undergraduate degree programs in this filed focus on courses like finance, corporate finance income securities, derivatives and the translation of accounting statements.

2.Investment Management

Stockbrokers with a degree in Investment management can work with portfolio managers to buy and sell securities for their clients. The undergraduate program of Investment management covers topics like investment analysis, risk analysis, portfolio management, investment strategies, economics, business math, and accounting.

3. Economics

A degree in economics can help you as stockbroker understand the volatile nature of the stock market as it depends on the health of the economy. The subject also helps you understand how companies gain or lose leverage within economic development. The Bachelors’ degree programs in economics focuses on economic development, economic policies, and banking and finance. The master level in economics can prepare the stockbrokers to focus on fields like national and international trade market operations to help prepare them for potentially lucrative careers in brokerage firms, investment firms and other trading institutions.

4. Statistics

Statistics covers topics like data analysis, probability and statistical computing and can help you develop the skills and knowledge that stock trading requires. A degree in statistics helps stockbrokers who perform stock analysis to develop trading strategies and navigate the risk in the market from a degree in statistics to demonstrate their expertise.

5. Computer Science

Many brokerages’ firms and other financial institutions that employ stockbrokers often hire candidates with a degree in computer science as it helps the stockbroker to apply skills to many aspects of stock trading. A degree in computer science can help the stockbrokers in computer systems security, managing databases, creating software applications and applying innovative technology to your career in stock trading.

6. Data analytics

Data analytics is very useful for stockbrokers in their career as it helps to guide their clients to invest in securities that offer the best possible returns. A bachelor’s degree in data analytics can cover a range of topics like economics,statistics,computer science, information technology, and information management. Stockbrokers who pursue a master’s degree in data analytics develop skills in areas like data collection, automation systems, data visualization and analytics algorithms.

7. Applied Mathematics

The bachelor program for applied mathematics can help you develop skills and expertise in areas like differential calculus, programing,mathematical and statistical software applications and logical reasoning. Stockbrokers  can further advance their skill set with a master’s degree in applied maths and learn in depth concepts in mathematical and statistical computing, modelling mathematical data and performing processes using technical applications.

How to be a Stockbroker in a Nutshell?

  • You must register yourself with the stock exchange depending upon your dealing in the securities listed at different stock exchanges.
  • After that, you must pass a written test & then undergo training that includes subjects such as capital markets, accountancy, portfolio analysis, etc. to become a member.
  • You must deposit a certain amount with the stock exchange as security for membership. Membership will be given after analysis that you are able to operate as a broker.
  • You must take a BSE certification in derivatives exchange & NSE’s certification in Financial Markets.


To become a member of SEBI, you will have to pass the written entrance test and then undergo a training program that includes subjects like accountancy, capital markets, securities and portfolio management and so on. Membership is only given after ensuring that the person will be able to operate as a broker.

Some of the entrance exams that are available in this field is:

  • BSE Certification on Central Depository
  • BSE Certification on Derivatives Exchange
  • BSE Certification on Currency Futures
  • BSE Certification on Securities Markets


Top Colleges in India where you study stockbroking:

  • Institute of Financial and Investment Planning, Mumbai
  • All India Center for Capital Market Studies, Nasik
  • Institute of Company Secretaries of India, New Delhi
  • Institute of Capital Market Development, New Delhi
  • Mumbai Stock Exchange Training Institute, Mumbai
  • Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India (ICFAI), Hyderabad

Why should you become a stockbroker?

Stockbrokers 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic world of bulls and bears

Current Job Outlook

Today a stockbroker can progress up to senior-level and get a good amount of compensation. He must learn and apply sales techniques to build a large client base with numerous portfolios. He must build a trustworthy relationship with clients to be successful. Few factors that affect the job growth of working experience in the stock market firm, education, and geographic location.

Stockbroker jobs and salaries

Junior Stockbroker

A junior stockbroker possesses an experience as 1 to 4 years. He manages the stock accounts of individuals and provides them with assistance in investing in the shares of companies that ensure more profitability. A junior stockbroker can easily earn up to Rs300,000 per annum.

Senior Stockbroker

A stockbroker has working experience of 10 tom 20 years. He has a vast knowledge of the stock market and knows how certain circumstances can affect the value of the shares of various companies or organizations. A senior stockbroker can easily earn more than Rs 500,000 per annum.


In abroad you can get a starting salary ranging from 24,000 pounds to 35,000 pounds a year.

Where do Stockbrokers work?

Stockbrokers manage individual investment accounts as well as work for large corporate entities. Since every company and organization today needs some level of financial investment advice, there are a lot of entry level stockbroker jobs available.

Given below are a few of the industries that do stockbroker hiring.

  • Securities, commodity, contract, and financial Investments.
  • Credit Intermediation
  • Non-depository credit Intermediation
  • Company and Enterprise Management
  • Agencies and Brokerages
  • Insurance and Employee Benefits
  • Pipeline Transportation off crude oil
  • Computer system Design
  • Farm Product Raw material wholesalers
  • Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers


Since most of the companies are in urban areas, stockbrokers mostly work in metropolitan areas.

Job Profile of the Stockbrokers

Here are some of the professions where stockbrokers can work.

  • Investment Bankers
  • Investment Banking sales agents and traders
  • Floor Brokers
  • Financial Service Sales Agents
  • Accounts Managers
  • Assistant Branch Manager


  • Investment Bankers

Investment Bankers are responsible for underwriting, or connecting businesses that supply money to investors. Some of the services that these professionals provide are initial public offerings, mergers and acquisitions. They are responsible for estimating the worth of a company and ensuring that the company meets all legal requirements to become publicly traded.

  • Investment Banking Sales Agent and Traders

Investment banking sales agents are responsible for carrying out client’s buy and sell orders for stocks, bonds and commodities. They also trade on behalf of the company they work for.They work for commercial banks, hedge funds and private equity groups.

  • Floor Brokers

The Floor Managers work on the floor of a security or commodity exchange. These professionals are responsible for price negotiation, making sales and forwarding the final price to the traders.

  • Financial Services Sales Agents

Financial Services sales agents are consulted by both individuals and businesses on various banking,security,insurance and related services. They also inform the potential clients and explain the services offered, including managing loans, individual retirement accounts and credit cards.

  • Accounts Manager

Account Managers maintain relationships with specific customers. They must have a clear understanding of the products and services offered and are able to make targeted pitches to new clients.

  • Assistant Branch Manager

Assistant branch managers at banks hire, train, and supervise customer service representatives. Hey also monitors financial activities,performs audits, reviews reports and manages cash levels.

Here is the list of the top brokerage firms and online trading companies in India where you can work as a stockbroker.

  • Angel Broking limited
  • Reliance Capital Ltd
  • HDFC
  • JP Morgan
  • ICICI Direct
  • India Infoline
  • Indiabulls
  • Sharekhan Limited
  • Kotak Securities Ltd.
  • Karvy Consultancy


The current economic scenario where the stock market is bullish there is a tremendous scope for a stockbroker in India. With more and more financial companies entering the Indian market there are a lot of stockbroker jobs near you and you can progress up to senior level and earn attractive compensation. It is seen that the salary of an experienced stockbroker is double that of the entry level stockbroker.


Purchase Officer 2023– A Promising career to grow with

If you love shopping and are good at negotiating & bargaining, you can make a career in Purchasing management as a Purchasing officer. You must be able to acquire or purchase all the goods and services that your company offers if you opt for a career as purchasing officer. This involves negotiating with sellers, checking quality standards, running tenders,maintaining files, and so on and so forth.

What is a Purchasing Officer?

Purchase Officer 2023-- A Promising career to grow with

A purchase officer is a person in the purchasing department who is responsible for sourcing and buying goods or materials that are later resold or used in daily operations. In retail business, the procurement officers source products for the business and then sell them to make profit. However, if they work for businesses who make their own products, the procurement officers source materials for the businesses and use them in the manufacturing process.

Purchase Officer Duties and Responsibilities? 

If you opt for a career as purchase officer, then you will be responsible for several tasks like evaluating suppliers, negotiating contracts, reviewing product quality, and checking if they match the company’s standards. It depends on the size of organisation; procurement officers may specialize in a particular type of product or a certain aspect of the buying process.

Here are some of the works that fit the Job description of the Purchase Officer.

  • Sourcing Products 

The first aspect of purchasing involves sourcing products. It is the duty of the purchasing officer to liaise with sales,marketing,product development, manufacturing and warehouse departments to establish their purchasing needs.They also research and evaluate vendors to find the most suitable products and prices.

  • Negotiating purchasing terms 

After sourcing suitable inventory, the purchase officers must negotiate with the buyers for the best possible prices and terms.They must make it possible to negotiate for bulk discounts and price breaks. Factors like dispatch times and return policies also play a key role in these negotiations. The officers can then prepare a contract and formally make purchases after they have reached an agreement.

  • Receiving Products 

It is the responsibility of the purchase officers to track orders and monitor deliveries to ensure that their employer receives products correctly.They also must check the quality off the materials or goods and communicate with the vendors if a problem occurs. Also, they must update the stock database after receiving the goods and coordinate with warehouse staff to ensure that these goods are stored correctly.

  • Monitoring stock and costs 

Purchase officers must monitor stock levels so they can easily and quickly make future orders.They even must prepare reports to help understand the stock’s movement in and out of the business to optimize order size and frequency. Additionally, they are required to perform routine cost analysis to help the business calculate profit margins and make improvements.

Types of Purchase Officer 

  • Purchasing Assistant 

The purchasing agent’s job is to assist senior buyers or purchase managers in carrying out their day-to-day activities. He assists them in filling contracts, evaluating the supplier’s track record and several other tasks that are involved in the entire purchase process.

  • Senior Buyer 

Senior buyers have an experience of 3-5 years’ experience in the field of the company’s purchasing department. He is responsible for managing his team under him. He assigns several jobs and responsibilities to the juniors.

  • Purchase Manager 

The purchase manager forecasts the level of demand and supply for a product or service in the market. He also conducts research to find the best suppliers in terms of quality, price and delivery of the product.

  • Logistician 

Every company or business requires a Logistician. It is up to the organization if it wants to outsource the logistics work, which is to hire a company which has expertise in the field of logistics, or the organization could have a logistics department of its own.


How can you become a Purchasing officer?

Purchase Officer 2023-- A Promising career to grow with 

A Purchasing Officer is a great career in business. As a purchasing officer you will be responsible for buying the products and services that your company needs to operate. The first thing that you should know to become a purchase officer are the skills. Here are some of the purchase officer skills that you need to possess or learn.

  • Communication Skills 

Purchasing Officers must have good command of their language.They must possess excellent written and verbal skills to liaise with various interpersonal departments and vendors. He must be able to communicate comfortably and effectively whether on phone,E- Mail/Post or Face to Face. Effective communication diminishes the probability of errors which can prove costly while making purchase orders.

  • Negotiation Skills

As a strong negotiator, a purchasing manager must be typically strategic, persuasive, and highly skilled in building rapport with others. He must be able to negotiate well with the suppliers to provide his company with supplies it requires in its daily operations. He should be able to convince and persuade his suppliers to his terms and get the best possible deal for his company.

  • Decision Making Skills 

A purchase manager must be decisive. He must take effective decisions that require strong decision-making skills. He must be able to calculate the risks and must be able to weigh the benefits and drawbacks of different options when making decisions.

  • Analytical Skills 

The ability to interpret data and make decisions based on the information you have is called Analytical Skills, purchasing officers must have strong analytical skills to review data about a company’s budget, analyse the cost of materials and make purchasing decisions. These skills are also utilised to evaluate the quality of the products or services a company provides.

  • Attention to Detail 

A purchasing officer must pay extreme attention to detail. He should not miss out on anything while doing their research and while evaluating for the right kind of supplier. He must take every step carefully and with every detail noted to avoid any kind of errors in the future.

  • Computer Literacy 

Purchasing officers must be computer literate as they have to use computers in all their work like inventory management,communications,purchasing order and reporting. He must be able to work on complex software packages.


Formal Training to become a Purchase officer 

Apart from the above skills you must complete your formal education and a purchase officer certification to qualify for the post of purchase officer.

Get a degree as undergraduate 

After passing their 12th in any of the subjects like science,arts,commerce,humanities and social science from a recognized board, you are also required to complete your graduation.

Here are the education qualifications as an undergraduate that is best suited for the career as purchase manager.

  • Diploma in Supply Chains management
  • Bachelors in business administration (BBA)
  • BBA in supply chain management and logistics.
  • BA economics
  • Purchasing and supply

Post graduate courses for purchase manager

  • MBA in Logistics and Supply chain management
  • PGD in supply chain management etc.

Here is the list of the top colleges where you can pursue your studies in purchase management. Many of these institutes have their own entrance examinations which you must qualify.

  • Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore
  • Indian Institute of Management, Kozhikode
  • Faculty of Management studies, New Delhi
  • Indian Institute of Management, Indore
  • National Institute of Securities market, Indore
  • MICA Ahmedabad
  • Indian School of Business, Hyderabad
  • Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad
  • Vidyasagar University, Midnapore

It is necessary for the Purchasing officer to have Certified Public Professional Buyer (CPPB) and Central Public Procurement Officer (CPPO) certification. Both these certifications are issued by The Universal Public Procurement Certification Council (UPPCC).

Purchasing officer Job Scope

Purchase Officer 2023-- A Promising career to grow with

At present the purchasing officer career is very promising for the aspirants. There are many job openings in various fields. Here we are not only talking about big multinational companies who need purchasing officers to find the right product and services for the company but also for smaller companies who have begun to hire purchase managers.

Rapid Industrialization is also increasing the demand for purchase manager jobs. The wave of start-up companies and venture capitalism has led to the formation of new companies which in turn is leading to the rise in demand for purchase managers.

The job openings growth rate is about 6.4% for purchase managers which is higher than the average of various other fields.

Here are some of the top recruiting industrial sectors where you can start your career as purchase manager.

  • Manufacturing Companies
  • Departmental/convenience store
  • Export Houses
  • Production Houses
  • Fashion Retail
  • Healthcare products and service delivery companies
  • Educational Institutes

Top Recruiting companies for Purchase officer jobs 

Here are some of the major companies in India that recruit purchase managers.

  • Tata
  • Mahindra & Mahindra
  • Reliance Group
  • Pantaloons
  • Spencer group 

PayScale/Salary of Purchase Manager 

The purchase officers get a good salary package, and they have plenty of scope at the later stage. At the entry level the purchasing officer get a salary in India is Rs 2 to 3 lacs per annum. However, the salary grows with experience and training. The average salary earned by a purchase officer/manager is about 8 lacs per annum. Purchase officer holding positions at senior level is about 10-12 lacs.


The Purchase management career is filled with excitement and responsibilities. You cannot afford to miss out on details as it affects the overall functioning of the organization. The job is very stressful as it involves managing multiple things in the purchase sector.

Those of you who wish to become a purchase officer will experience a significant growth in your career path. Purchase officer career is vast and there are plenty of job growth opportunities in the career path as you gain experience and knowledge.







Oceanography 2023– An exciting and exhilarating career

An Oceanographer is a scientist who studies the ocean. The subject that an oceanographer primarily focuses on in his research is called Oceanography. Oceanography science is the research of different aspects of ocean to better understand how it works and how it affects other parts of life, such as the weather or erosion along the shoreline.

Since oceans cover almost two thirds of our planet, the study of oceanography assumes importance. Healthy oceans are of ultimate importance to life in this planet as a whole so the work of oceanographers impacts all of us.Also oceans are the source of food,natural resources and other elements that people use everyday.Most of the research in oceanography focuses on human impact on oceans and how to minimize the impact to keep the ocean system healthy.

An Introduction to Oceanography?

Oceanography 2023-- An exciting and exhilarating career

Oceanography is the branch of earth science that studies the physical and biological properties of the ocean and discovers the various phenomenon of seawater.It deals with the study of oceans and seas with specific importance to coastline,estuaries,coastal waters,shelves and the ocean bed.Oceanography covers wide range of topics that includes marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics, ocean current , waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics. It includes plate tectonics and geology of the sea floor and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries.

Four Types of  Oceanography

Traditionally oceanography is divided into four disciplines that are related to each other.These are

  • Physical Oceanography
  • Chemical Oceanography
  • Biological Oceanography
  • Geological Oceanography
  • Physical Oceanography

Physical Oceanography is the  study of the physical processes and conditions within the ocean such as waves,currents, eddies, gyres, and tides.It  studies the interaction of atmosphere with the ocean, the transmission of light and sound through ocean, coastal erosion and the ocean’s interaction with its boundaries at the sea floor and the coast.

  • Biological Oceanography

Biological oceanography is the study of plants and animals in the marine environment.It deals with the study of numbers of marine organisms and how these organisms develop,relate to one another, adapt to their environment and interact with it.

  • Chemical Oceanography

Chemical oceanography is the study of the composition of seawater, its biochemical cycles and processes, and the chemical interaction of seawater with seafloor and atmosphere.The study includes analysis of seawater components,the effect of pollutants and the impact of chemical processes on marine organisms.

  • Geological Oceanography

Geological oceanography is the study of the structure, feature and evolution of seafloor. It is the study of the changes in the physical structure resulted in canyons, mountains and valleys.The subject also examines the volcanic processes,mantle circulation,hydrothermal circulation,magma genes and crustal formation

All oceanographers must have a deep understanding of biology,chemistry,geology, and physics to unravel the mysteries of the world and to understand the processes within it.


What is an Oceanographer?

Oceanography 2023-- An exciting and exhilarating career

An oceanographer studies the ocean. He is a type of Geo-scientist who studies the physical and chemical properties and movement patterns of the oceans. He uses mathematics and science to explain the interaction between atmosphere,seawater,freshwater and biosphere.

Oceanographers come from different academic backgrounds including disciplines as diverse as zoology, physics and meteorology.


What are the Roles and Responsibilities of an Oceanographer?

Here are some of the duties of an oceanographer.

  •  An oceanographer studies the marine ecosystem and their inhabitants.
  • He researches marine animals and conducts experiments in the ocean to make discoveries.
  • He collects sample data from the ocean using specialized techniques and equipment.
  • He studies the movement of oceans and understands the nature of waves, currents, and tides.
  • An oceanographer predicts changes in weather and climate to improve the forecast of both natural and human-made hazards.
  • Assess the impact of pollutants on water quality in the ocean.
  • He monitors the effect of chemicals on marine food chain.
  • He builds hypothesis and makes accurate predictions using statistical methods and field data.
  • He submits relevant proposals to get research funding.
  • He submits reports on the research findings and activities.


How can you become an Oceanographer?

Oceanography 2023-- An exciting and exhilarating career

Oceanographers are of many types and they work in different environments on a variety of ocean-related subjects. Most of them are inspired by the works off famous oceanographers. Some teach or write oceanography books. But all of them have an intense desire to uncover the mysteries of the oceans.

An oceanographer requires various skills to excel in their workforce. Some off these are:

  • Communication skills

Oceanographers require excellent communication skills to create research papers and document their reports, and this requires excellent written communication skills.They must have excellent presentation skills.

  • Critical thinking

Oceanographers require excellent critical thinking skills.They require it analyze their research data to develop findings that can make crucial decisions.

  • Physical Stamina

As oceanographers have to work underwater in remote locations to collect samples for research and conduct tests, they require a great of physical stamina and conduct tests.

  • Outdoor Skills

Oceanographers must work a great deal outdoors to conduct research and study the ocean.They are required to camp at remote locations and stay outdoors that require excellent outdoor skills.

  • Problem-solving skills

Oceanographers must work on complex projects and analyze statistical data to make informed judgements on issues related to oceans. They require excellent problem-solving skills to perceive and address a problem.

  • Technical Knowledge

Oceanographers with good technical knowledge in marine and ocean environments are usually preferred by employers.

  • Research and Lab skills

Since oceanographers conduct their analyses in laboratory settings to develop hypothesis, conducting experiments and drawing meaningful conclusions require excellent research and lab skills.

  • Computer Skills

Oceanographers require strong computer skills to create digital maps and run statistical models.


Formal Education for Oceanographer

If you have an interest in exploring oceans and marine life, then oceanographer is a perfect career choice for you. Here is a step by step guide for you to become an oceanographer.

Step 1

To pursue a career in oceanography you must be good in your studies, especially in high school where maths and science will provide you adequate preparation after graduation.

Step 2

You must have a bachelor’s degree to get an entry level position within oceanography. To become an oceanographer, you must pursue a B.Sc. degree in botany,zoology,chemistry,fishery,earth science, agriculture, microbiology, applied sciences and related areas. Most bachelor’s degrees require you to attend practical laboratory classes.

Step 3

You must complete a two year’s master’s degree program in oceanography. You must enrol in a Master of Science (M.Sc.) oceanography or marine biology from a reputed institution to rise in your career as oceanographer. You can even attain a degree in Master of Technology (M.Tech) in ocean engineering and ocean technology to get hired by the employers.

Master Courses
  • Master of Science (M.Sc) in oceanography
  • Master of Science in Marine Biology
  • M.Tech in Ocean Engineering
  • M.Sc in Marine Biology
  • M.Tech in Ocean Technology
Step 4

Candidates can pursue a Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) in marine biology and chemical oceanography or complete their PhD in oceanography in case they want to conduct research and teach at various universities.

Doctoral Courses
  • M.Phil. in Marine Biology
  • M.Phil. in Chemical Oceanography
  • PhD in Oceanography


Oceanography Syllabus

The Oceanography courses are structured in four semesters. Here is the list of the subjects covered in master’s courses in Oceanography.

Semester 1

  • Physical Meteorology
  • Dynamical Meteorology
  • Physical Oceanography
  • Physical and Dynamical Meteorology
  • Practical
  • Computer Programming & Data Processing
  • Meteorology & Oceanography Computations
  • Viva Voice

Semester 2

  • Dynamical Oceanography
  • Synoptic Meteorology
  • Advanced Dynamical Meteorology
  • Electronics
  • Practical
  • Synoptic Analysis
  • Electronics

Semester 3

  • Cloud Physics
  • Air-Sea Interaction
  • Observational Techniques
  • Numerical Weather Prediction
  • Practical
  • Numerical Weather Protection
  • Instruments

Semester 4

  • Tropical Meteorology
  • Climate Modelling
  • Satellite Meteorology
  • Agricultural & Hydro-meteorology
  • Practical
  • Applied Meteorology
  • Dissertation


Top oceanography colleges in India

Most of the institutes/universities in India offer postgraduate courses in oceanography and Marine biology.  Here are a few of the universities in India that offer courses in Oceanography.

  • Alagappa University

Course: M.Sc. Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies
Eligibility: B.Sc. in Zoology/Botany/Chemistry/ Fishery Science / Earth Science/Physics/Agriculture/Microbiology/Applied Sciences or equivalent thereof in the related disciplines

  • Andhra University

Course: M.Sc. (Oceanography – Physical and Chemical)
Eligibility: B.Sc. in Zoology/Botany/Chemistry/ Fishery Science / Earth Science/Physics/Agriculture/Microbiology/Applied Sciences or any other equivalent programs

  • Annamalai University

Course: M.Sc. (Marine Biology and Oceanography)
Eligibility: A pass in the B.Sc. Degree examination with Zoology as the main subject with not less than 55% of marks in Part-III.

  • Cochin University of Science and Technology

Courses Offered:
M.Sc. Oceanography
M.Phil. Chemical Oceanography
M.Tech. Ocean Technology
M.Sc. Marine Biology

  • India Institute of Technology


  • Berhampur University

Course: M.Sc. in Marine Biology/Oceanography
Eligibility: B.Sc. in Zoology/Botany/Chemistry/ Fishery Science / Earth Science/Physics/Agriculture/Microbiology/Applied Sciences or any other equivalent programs.

  • Goa University

Course Offered: M.Sc. Marine Science, Ph.D

  • Mangalore University

Course: M. Sc. in Marine Geology
Eligibility: BSc

  • Amity University,Jaipur
  • Institute of Technology & Marine Engineering
  • Indian Maritime University


Top 10 Universities for Oceanographers

There are a wide range of universities/colleges offering degrees in oceanography courses around the globe. Here are a few of the universities that offer oceanography courses to the candidates.

University Total Fees
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 57 lacs
The University of California, Berkeley (UCB) 51.2 lakhs
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill


13.2 lacs
University of Miami 55.6lacs
California Institute of Technology (Caltech) 59.1lacs
University of Wisconsin-Madison 41.3 lacs
University of California-Santa Cruz 43.6lacs


University of California, San Diego 26.6 lacs



Why study Oceanography?

Oceanography 2023-- An exciting and exhilarating career

The job market of Geo-scientists, including that of an oceanographer, is expected to grow by 7% between 2020 and 2030. Natural resources companies in the petroleum and gas industry can be a reliable source of employment for oceanographers. Institutes conducting research as well as government institutes who work to provide environment protection and water management also will contribute to the rise in demand for oceanographers. You can also take the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) exam to join services in the public sector.


Here is a list of sectors where Oceanographers can find employment opportunities:

  • Environmental Protection Agencies
  • Indian Navy
  • Merchant Navy
  • National Institute of Oceanography
  • Weather Forecast Department
  • Manufacturers of Marine Equipment
  • Energy Supply Organizations
  • Oil, Gas, and Water Industry
  • Industrial Research Laboratories
  • Geological survey of India
  • Meteorological survey of India


Job Profiles and Salary

Here is the list of some of the popular job profiles along with basic salary structure.

  • Ocean Imports Manager
  • Wellness Ocean Resource Person
  • Marine Biologist
  • Physical, Biologist, Chemical and Geological Oceanographers
  • Marine Environmentalists
  • Marine and Ocean Engineers
  • Marine policy experts
  • Hydro-grapher
  • Marine Archaeologists
  • Ocean Freight Manager
  • Maintenance Assistant


Oceanographer Salary

Making a career in Oceanography is not only challenging but equally rewarding. The average salary of an oceanographer in India is approximately Rs 2 to 9 lacs per annum.

In the US, the average salary after pursuing oceanography is given below.

Job Profile Annual salary per annum
Conservation Scientists


Rs 45 lacs
Biological Technicians


Rs36 lacs
Biochemist and Biophysicists Rs 70 lacs


Rs 68 lacs
Atmospheric Scientists


Rs 70 lacs


Rs 59 lacs


Rs 47 lacs











Forestry Professionals 2023– Welcome to yet another dynamic and enterprising career

We live in a world which is living and thriving with all kinds of flora and fauna. As the leader of the living being and regarded as the most intelligent being it becomes our duty to preserve life on the planet. Today almost 31% of the world’s land surface is covered with Forests. That is about 4.6 billion hectares. In India the percentage is 21.71% I.e., 7,13,789 square kilometres. It is the job of the Forestry professionals to preserve and maintain these forests.

What is Forestry?

Forestry is the science or practice of planting,managing,conserving, and maintaining forests and its associated resources with the aim of meeting the goal of human benefit.

Forestry is the art and science of land and forest management. Its goal is to optimize the use of the areas covered under forests for commercial, industrial and recreational purposes while conserving the natural resources and protecting the environment for the future.

Professional forestry consists of a range of diverse jobs that can occur in the forest or in an office where plans and policies are decided. They include planning,advising,directing,approving,supervising,engaging in, and reporting services.

Professional forestry includes services related to inventory, classification,valuation,appraisal, conservation,protection,management,enhancement,harvesting, silviculture, and rehabilitation of trees, forest resources, forest transportation systems and forest.


What is a Forestry Professional?

Forestry Professionals 2023-- Welcome to yet another dynamic and enterprising career
Forester Foreman Using Digital Tablet When Working and Supervising in Forest.

A practitioner of Forestry is known as Forester or Forestry Professional.

A Forestry Professional is an expert in land and forest management who must keep a balance between planning the usage of forest lands and protecting them. In other words, “Sustainability” is the primary goal of the forestry professional.

Forestry Professionals do research, develop plans and administer programs related to the management and harvesting of natural resources in the forest.

Forestry Professionals work in the forest industry, provincial and federal governments, consulting companies, educational institutions or other industries. Some of them are also self-employed.


There are two main types of Forest Professionals.

  • Registered Forest Technologist (RFT) 

Registered Forest Technologist holds a two-year post-secondary diploma. He is mainly involved in technical forest management activities such as forest measurements,silviculture, and forest operations. and forest protection.

  • Registered Professional Forester (RPF) 

Registered Professional Forester (RPF) holds a four-year post-secondary degree. He is involved in all aspects of managing the forest and how it will be used and cared for.

Roles and Responsibilities of the Forestry Professionals 

Although the specific tasks of the forest professional vary from region to region, we still bring out the general tasks of them.

  • The forest professionals plan and direct forest surveys and related studies. They have to prepare reports on findings, conclusions and recommendations.
  • They create short-term and long-term plans for the management of forest lands and resources. This is done by compiling and evaluating Geographical Information System (GIS) data and aerial photographs to identify trends in forest and land usage.
  • They plan and direct woodland harvesting, road building, and reforestation programs. They also plan silviculture, prevention and suppression of fire, wildlife management, environmental protection, and insect and vegetable control.
  • They must ensure adherence to government regulations and forest company goals.
  • They must evaluate the health and growth of the trees using tools like clinometers and bark gauges to estimate timber volumes.
  • They oversee contract compliance and results of forest activities.
  • Their job is to advise, recommend and provide other consultative services about forestry matters to private woodlot owners, municipal, provisional or federal government or forest companies.


How can you become a Forest Professional?

Forestry Professionals 2023-- Welcome to yet another dynamic and enterprising career

There are many skills that are vital for professional foresters. Here are a few of them.

  • Physical Stamina
  • Management and supervisory skills
  • Communication Skills
  • Analytical reasoning and critical thinking skills
  • Informed decision-making skills

Since forestry is more of a science you must take courses in STEM. This is because it will help you to build a solid foundation that will serve you well in your future career in forestry.

Indian Forest Services Pathway 

You can do a bachelor’s degree in any of the following subjects:

  • Agriculture
  • Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science
  • Botany
  • Chemistry
  • Forestry
  • Geology
  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Statistics
  • Zoology
  • Silviculture
  • Forest Products
  • Commercial Forestry
  • Agroforestry
  • Forest Economics
  • Wood Science & Tech.
  • Tree Genetics & Breeding


You can take a master’s degree in the following subjects.

  • M.Sc. in Forestry
  • M.Sc. in wildlife
  • M.Sc. in Wood Science & Tech.
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Agroforestry
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Forest Products
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.) in Tree Improvements
  • Masters in wildlife sciences.


In case you want to go for an M.Phil./PhD degree in forestry there are more career opportunities as well as a hike in salary.

Candidates can take certificate & Diploma courses in Forestry. Here are a few of them.

  • Diploma in Zoo and Wild Animal Health Care and Management
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Forestry Management (PGDFM)
  • Post master’s Diploma Non-Wood Forest Products.


Eligibility to get admission in Forestry Courses 

After clearing their 10+2 examination with science, the candidates must pass All India Entrance Exam of ICAR (ICAR AIEEA 2023) for admission to agriculture universities that offer Forestry courses. Various Universities/Institutions have their own entrance examination for providing admission.

Here are few of the Universities/Colleges that offer forestry courses in India.

  • Dr BR Ambedkar University, Uttar Pradesh
  • GB. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pant Nagar
  • Arid Forest Research institute, Jodhpur
  • Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal
  • Forest Research Institute University, DehraDun
  • Dr. Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Himachal Pradesh
  • Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun
  • Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur
  • Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore

Educational Fees 

The educational fees to become a forestry professional in India varies depending on the level of education and the institution. Here is the approximate costs for you to complete the degree in forestry.

  • For a bachelor’s degree in forestry the average tuition fees in India is between Rs 50,000 to Rs 150,000 per year.
  • For a master’s degree in forestry the cost ranges from Rs 70,000 to Rs 2.50,000 per annum.
  • For the Ph.D. in forestry the average tuition fees is Rs 50,000 to Rs 150,000 per year.

Students also have to bear the cost of accommodation,food,books,and other expenses. However, Scholarships and financial aid programs are also available to eligible students.


Why should you become a Forestry Professional?

Professional Lumberjack With Protective Work wear Cutting a Fallen Tree with a Chainsaw

Today modern forestry management has become very complicated and diverse. The need to understand the subject of forestry has become essential. The forestry professionals who are thoroughly equipped with the relevant skills, education and experience of forestry are now employed by the forestry management.

These professionals can easily guide the decision-making and policy making of forest land management. The forestry professional specializes in problem solving, technical science, prescription,interpretation.assessment, judgement,computation,monitoring,optimization,negotiation, management, supervision, and written verbal communication.


The forest professional must coordinate with many people from different profiles like landowners,purchasers,managers,technicians,contractors,and other professionals to implement projects important to manage the forest for renewable commodities and natural resource values.

These forestry professionals are now employed to advise and inform the management of the valued forestland assets. These professionals are now the decision-maker or the managers who direct operations and programs. Forestry jobs require a unique combination of intellectually demanding work that is often located outdoors in the forest.

Here are a few of the Forester Job profiles who are employed in the decision-making process by the forestry management.

  • Archaeologist 

The Forest archeologist is a forestry professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the management of cultural, historic and prehistoric, and historic preservation on forestland properties.

He is an expert in anthropology and cultural science with a bachelor’s degree in archaeology,anthropology or cultural resources, and related experience.

  • Biologist – Wildlife/Fisheries 

The forest biologist is a forestry professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the management of plants, animals, birds, fish, other biota, and their terrestrial & aquatic habitats on forestland properties. Duties may include ecological resources.

Forest biologist is dedicated to sound biologic science and species management and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in biology or forest ecology, and related experience.

  • Ecologist 

The forest ecologist is a forestry professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the management of abiotic and biotic ecosystems, invasive species, and species terrestrial & aquatic habitats on forestland properties.

Forest ecologist is dedicated to sound ecologic science and ecosystems management and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in ecology or biology, and related experience.

  • Economist/Accountant 

The forest economist is a forestry professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the micro- and macro-economic implications of forest management activities conducted on forestland properties.

Forest economist is dedicated to sound economic principles, financial & cost accounting, generally accepted accounting principles, and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in economics, accounting, or forest management, and related experience.

  • Engineer 

The forest engineer is a professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the design, construction, operation and maintenance concerning forest infrastructure such as roads, logging-transportation systems, bridges, structures, drainage, facilities and trails located on forestland properties.

Forest engineers are dedicated to sound engineering principles and infrastructure effectiveness and are credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in forest engineering and related experience.

  • Entomologist/Pathologist 

Entomology is the study of forest insect pests while pathology is the study and prevention of forest diseases. The forest entomologist/pathologist is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to healthy forestland property management of one or both specialized fields.

Forest entomologist, or pathologist, is dedicated to forest health, sound science, and ecosystems management, and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in forest entomology, forest pathology, or forest health, and related experience.

  • Environmental/Legal Coordinator

The forest environmental coordinator is a land managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to regulatory compliance with environmental laws during forest management operations. Coordinator assures legal requirements are accomplished for environmental protection, contracting, project design, liability, insurance, litigation, legal defence, environmental documentation & records, forest planning, and land use law.

Environmental coordinator is dedicated to sound legal and business practices, and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in business, environmental science, or forestry and related experience.

  • Extension/Forest Interpretation/Educator

The forest educator is a forestry professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the education of people about forest science, management, public uses, and benefits of forests and forestland properties.

Forest educator is dedicated to sound educational principles, extension of knowledge about forests, interpretation and visitor administration, natural resource management, and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in education, interpretation, outdoor recreation or natural resources, and related experience.

  • Fire Management Officer 

The forest fire management officer is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the managed use of prescribed fire, the prevention of unwanted fires, as well as firefighting wildfires on forestland properties.

Forest fire management officer is dedicated to sound fire science, climatology, air quality and fire management, and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in forest fire science, forestry, or forest health, and related experience.

  • Forest Operations Business Manager  

The forest operations manager is a land managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the business functions of a private forest management firm, such as accounting, personnel, asset management, financial & budgeting, forestry operations, harvest planning, stand management, contracting, logistics, legal matters, and so forth.

Forest business manager is dedicated to sound business practices and applicable laws and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in forest operations, business or management, and related experience.

  •  Forester 

The forester is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the forest growing, harvesting, protection, accessibility, productivity, and sustainability on forestland properties.

Foresters are dedicated to sound forest science, management and conservation, and are credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in forestry and related experience.

  • Geographic Information Systems Specialist – Cartographer  

The forest cartographer is a land managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the electronic mapping, spatial data computing, remote sensing, and imagery interpretation applicable to the management of forestland properties.

Forest cartographer is dedicated to sound geographic information management and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in GIS systems or cartography, and related experience.

  • Geologist/Geo technical Engineer  

A forest geologist is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the management of forest Geo technical engineering, geology resources, land movement, quarry and excavation on forestland properties.

Forest geologists are dedicated to sound geologic science and are credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in geology or soil science, and related experience.

  • Lobbyist – Government Affairs/Policy 

The forest policy lobbyist is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the policy making, lawmaking, forest planning and communication, surrounding government policies that govern forestland property management.

Forest policy lobbyists are dedicated to sound representation of effective forest management policies and practices, ethical lobbying, accurate communication, business principles and balanced public policy, and are credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in political science, forest management or public policy, and related experience.

  • Hydrologist 

The forest hydrologist is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the operations management of forest water resources—such as streams, wetlands, lakes, bogs, springs or watersheds—and aquatic habitat on forestland properties.

Forest hydrologist is dedicated to sound hydrologic science and water quality management and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in hydrology or forest watersheds, and related experience.

  • Information Technology (IT) Specialist 

The forest information technology (IT) specialist is a land managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the electronic information storage, computing, database management, field data recording, software applications, internet services, optimization programs, mapping, and spatial data applicable to the management of forestland properties.

Forest IT specialist is dedicated to sound electronic information management and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in information technology, computer systems, or other related curriculum, and related experience.

  •  Land Surveyor 

The forest land surveyor is a land managing professional who provides sound knowledge and techniques of surveying measurement, relevant law, adequate evidence, which are requisite to surveying of real property.

Land surveyors are dedicated to sound surveying practices and are credentialed by a Licensed Professional Land Surveyor.

  • Landscape Architect 

The landscape architect is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the management of aesthetic and visual resources on forestland properties.

Forest landscape architect is dedicated to sound visual management science and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in landscape architecture or natural resources, and related experience.

  • Logistics/Transportation/Forest Planner 

The forest logistics planner is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the allocation, scheduling, transportation and movement of forest products, workers, equipment, resources or materials—surrounding the management of forest projects and forestlands.

Forest logistics planners are dedicated to sound transportation, logistics principles and planning effectiveness, and are credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in operations management, logistics, transportation or engineering, and related experience.

  • Outdoor Recreation Director 

The forest recreation director is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the public uses of forests for enjoyment, lifestyle, aesthetics, cultural values, user access, or recreational opportunities on forestland properties.

Forest recreation director is dedicated to sound outdoor recreational science, natural resource management, interpretation and visitor administration, and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in outdoor recreation or natural resources, and related experience.

  • Public Forest Administrator 

The forest public administrator is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the management of a government agency engaged in forestlands.

Public administrator is dedicated to sound forest science, management, conservation and public policy, and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in public administration, planning or forestry, and related experience.

  •  Public Relations/Communication Manager 

The forest public relations manager is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the external and internal communications of a forest organization.

Public relations manager is dedicated to sound journalism principles, technical writing, environmental documentation, presentations, information technology, and communication about forest management, and are credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in journalism, public relations, political science or forest management, and related experience.

  •  Range Conservationist 

The forest range conservationist is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the grazing management of forage resources located on forestland properties. Conservationist responsible for natural resource protection, forage utilization, grazing allotment planning, wildlife habitat, and wise use of forage for livestock and other ungulates.

Range conservationist is dedicated to sound range science and is credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in range conservationist or forest range resources or range ecology, and related experience.

  • Silviculturist 

The silviculturist is a forestland managing professional who provides sound knowledge and administration skills to the forest growing, harvesting, protection, accessibility, productivity, and sustainability on forestland properties. Silviculturist is a specialised type of ‘forester’, who is focused on diagnosis, prescription, forest health, and reforestation. Silviculturists control establishment, growth, health and harvest of forests to meet the needs and values of forest landowners on a sustainable basis.

Silviculturists are dedicated to sound forest science, engineering, management and conservation, and are credentialed by a bachelor’s degree in forestry, extensive related forest management experience.

The Future Scenario 

The prospects of the forestry profession in India are very encouraging due to the increasing awareness and concern for environment conservation and sustainable management of natural resources.

As per the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), the forestry and wildlife sector in India is projected to grow at a rate of 2.2% per year until 2025, creating job opportunities for around 2 million people.

The forestry sector in India is also expected to benefit from the growing demand for wood-based products, especially in the construction and furniture industries. According to the report by Research and Market, the India wood-based panel market is expected to grow at a rate of 6.8% per year until 2026 driven by the increasing demand for eco-friendly and sustainable materials.


We as humans, the most intelligent being on the planet, have the responsibility of being the part of it as well as being the caretaker of it.We are destined to live here and use its resources in a responsible manner that ensures the vitality of the global environment for generations to come.

If you think you can be one of those people who want to protect the natural environment there are several conservation careers that you might like to pursue. One such role is the Forestry Professional.





Placement Officer 2023– Welcome to the dynamic career with a heart of Philanthropy

Let us look at today’s scenario in the corporate ladder. The first step for us as a candidate is to get a place in the company of our choice and then a suitable job relevant to our skills and ambition. We go to a nearby job consultancy office to know the entry process in a company of our choice.

There we meet and shake hands with a person sitting behind the desk, probably with a computer. The officer makes us fill in a form asking for information about us, our skills, our educational qualifications, our career goals etc. Then he will give a short interview with us after seeing the form. The person whom we are talking to is the Placement Officer. 

 Now let us look in the mirror and view from the other side. We are in the Human Resources & Development (HR&D) department of a company. As a HRD manager there we are looking for suitable candidates for the company for various jobs in sales & marketing, personal,finance, accounts, administration, information technology etc. As a company’s employee we have responsibility towards our company to get candidates with relevant skills for the various jobs at different positions in the company. 

The whole game starts here.Both the candidate applying for the job and the HRD officer of the company are looking for their best interests. Then we have a third person who tries to negotiate between the two to get a WIN-WIN situation for both. The person we are referring to is a placement officer. 

Now let us look at the whole process of recruitment of candidates in a company in both the government and private sector. 

What is Staffing?

Placement Officer 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic career with an heart of Philanthropy


Staffing includes the whole process of identifying.assessing, placing, evaluating, and developing individuals at work. It involves the matching of jobs and individuals. 

What are the steps involved in the staffing process? 

Staffing involves numbers of functions like planning,selection,training and appraisal of the individuals. There are the 7 Steps involved in the process of staffing. 

1. Manpower Planning  

Manpower planning is defined as the process by which the management ensures the right number of people and the right kinds of people at the right place at the right time doing the right things for which they are best suited. 

2. Job analysis 

Job analysis is the process of systematic collection of data in the organization to redesign each job in such a way to distinguish it from other jobs.  

3. Selection 

Selection is the process of choosing the most suitable person among the candidates both from within the organization or from outside for the current position or for the future position. 

4. Tests and Interview 

All of us have different physical characteristics, capacity, level of mental ability, likes and dislikes and with respect to personality traits. Tests and Interview measure these differences among the individual candidates. These tests provide us with the candidate’s intelligence,aptitude,interest,personality,etc. 

5. Placement 

Placement is the appointment of the candidates after selection to the specific jobs after matching the requirements of the jobs and the skills of the candidate concerned. 

6. Induction and Orientation 

Induction and orientation are the process of introducing a new employee to the organization, its culture, procedures, rules and regulations and its people with whom he will interact in his day to day working. 

7. Performance Appraisal 

Performance appraisal measures and evaluates employees with respect to their performance on the jobs and their potential for development.  

Here we will be discussing STEP 5 of the staffing process I.e., the Placement, The Placement officer who does it and the career path of the placement officer.  


Placement and Placement officers 

Placement Officer 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic career with a heart of Philanthropy

Placement- Definition 


“Placement is the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned and his assignment and to that job.” 

                                                                   Pigors and Myers 

To put it in simple words, placement is the process of sending newly selected personnel to some department for work. It is also concerned with the assignment of authority and responsibility to the newly assigned candidates in the company.Effective placement is putting the right man in the right job. 

Placement is an important HR function and new recruits must be inducted properly so that they become good performers. 

Placement helps the employers in achieving the following objectives:  

  1. It improves the morale of the employees  
  2. It reduces employee turnover  
  3. Placement decreases accident rates  
  4. Enhances labour productivity  
  5. Clarifies expectations.

What is a Placement officer? 

Placement Officer 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic career with an heart of Philanthropy

Placement officers are the human resources experts.They are responsible for placing university and college students in the suitable work environments by sending them to relevant employers.They do this by sending candidates to those jobs that require matching skills.  

Placement officers mostly work for tertiary education providers such as universities,TAFEs,RTOs, and specialized training organizations. 

 Placement Officers Job Description 

Here are the Placement officer’s roles & responsibilities 

  • Finding effective placement opportunities for students. 
  • To conduct proper training of students. 
  • Liaison with students and employers during placement. 
  • Foster relationships with employment providers. 
  • To work in close coordination with coordinator industry and institute for organizing lectures and seminars from the professionals from various educational institutes and industry. 
  • To collect feedback from the companies for placement. 
  • Conduct pre-placement background checks 
  • Organize entrepreneurship workshop.

How can you become a Placement Officer? 

Placement Officer 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic career with a heart of Philanthropy

Skill set for placement officers 

Here are the key skills that an employer looks for in a placement officer. 

  • Excellent communication and interpersonal skills.
  •  Must be proficient in management & economics. 
  • He must be aware of industrial clusters in terms of sectors and locations. 
  • He must have excellent networking skills and able to build contacts & credible reciprocal relationships with top brass in the industry. 
  • A placement officer must be able to facilitate industry-institute relationship. 
  • He must be good in public relations and liaisoning. 
  • He must be well aware of the changing needs of industry.government policies and national economy. 
  • He must be proactive,always have a positive attitude, and be an optimist. 
  • He must be able to work under strict targets and stressful conditions. 

Educational Qualifications for Placement officers. 

You must have at least a degree in graduation in any subject to start your career as Placement officer.It is desirable that the placement officers must have same degree that is being offered.However you must have significant experience in the industry with good network and contacts with the top brass in the big business houses. 

A MBA or PGDBM in Human Resources & Development has become also necessary in the present context. 

Here are the list of top business schools in India offering  MBAs offering HR. 


Institute  Locations  Course  Eligibility  Website/Information 
Indian Institute of Management  Ahmedabad  PGDBM  At least 10+2+3 in any discipline 
Management Development Institute  Gurgaon  PGDBM  At least 10+2+3 in any discipline 
Xavier Labour Research Institute (XLRI) – Xavier School of Management  Jamshedpur  PGDBM  At least 10+2+3 in any discipline 
Tata Institute of Social Science  Mumbai  PGDBM  Own entrance 



Here are few of the top business schools of the world offering MBAs in HR. 

Institute  Courses  Average Score in GMAT  Country  Website 
University of Chicago – Booth School of Business  MBA  720  USA 
Stanford Graduate School of Business  MBA  720  USA 
Harvard Business School  MBA  730  USA 
University of Pennsylvania-Wharton  MBA  728  USA 
London business school  MBA  700  UK 
INSEAD  MBA  703  France 
University of Oxford- Saïd Business School  MBA  690  UK 
HEC Paris MBA  MBA  690  France 
NUS Business School  MBA  672  Singapore 
HKUST Business School  MBA  600  Hong Kong 


 Cost of fees 

The cost of an MBA from a top business school in India would range between INR 8 lakhs to INR 25 lacs comprehensively. A MBA degree from abroad will cost you between INR 35 lacs to INR 90 lacs comprehensively.If you go for an Executive MBAs which are of shorter duration the total costs rises much higher. 


The Scope of Placement Officer as Career 

Placement Officer 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic career with an heart of Philanthropy

Let us look at the current statistics. 

The percentage of the working population in India is 59.5 percent of the total population. 

India has the largest universities in the world.Today India has around 1000 + universities and 42000 + colleges imparting higher education. 

There are a total of 3500 engineering colleges,1260 medical colleges,3400 polytechnics, and 200 design and architecture schools in india. 

Today about 8.15% of Indians are graduates. 

The unemployment rate in India in 2021 was 5.98%. The number of Job seekers in India in 2016 as per CEIC data was 43.5 million. 

This leads us to the fact that there is a tremendous scope of education in India and lots of opportunities for placement officers. 

The placement officers are much in demand in these colleges and universities as college and university placement officers especially those offering professional degrees like engineering colleges,Business Schools,CA Institutes, Vocational training institutes, and training institutes like NIIT which have their own placement cell and needs student placement officers to liaison with the industry for placement in various companies. 

Also a Placement officer with experience and Network & Contact in the industry can start his own career placement office.  

Placement Agencies 

Placement Officer 2023-- Welcome to the dynamic career with a heart of Philanthropy


Today the Indian staffing market is $10 billion.It is growing at the rate of 28% per annum and is poised to become one of the largest by the year 2030.Today recruitment industry in India is a huge industry and cover areas like talent acquisition,employee responsibilities,reskilling employees and providing them with good compensation. 

The placement agencies take care of recruiting the job seekers to the employers.A placement agency is a private firm placing people in jobs in various companies.The placement agency provide nation-wide service by matching the demand and supply of work-force  and invite the bio-data and record from various job-seekers and send them to suitable clients.They charge fees for providing such service from both the job-seeker and commission(about 2% –2.5% of the salary) from the company where the job seeker is successfully placed. 

There are about 23,000 recruitment companies in India where we find work placement officers waiting to recruit the job seekers to approach them.Also the companies hire these placement agencies to recruit the candidates in different departments like strategy and management, operations, human resources, finances, funding opportunities, IT, and sales and marketing. 


Top 10 Placement agencies in India 

Here are the top ten placement agencies in India where you can work as a placement officer. 

1. Teamplus staffing solution(IT staffing company in India) 

  • Industry:Recruitment & Staffing consultant 
  • Location:Pune,Maharashtra 

Teamplus staffing solution is a renowned placement agency. The agency provides expertise in a wide range of staffing assistance like Contract Staffing Services, Permanent Staffing Services,  RPO Services, Offshore Staffing Services, Remote/ Virtual IT Staffing Services, and Onsite Recruitment Services in India and other nations 


2. ABC Job placement 

  • Industry: Recruitment Consultants 
  • Location: New Delhi 

“Building Careers” is the Motto of ABC job placement and is one of the top placement agencies. It has over 500 job consultants and it is one of the best talent acquisition companies for offering the best and most personalised recruitment solutions. 


3. Zigsaw consultancy 

  • Industry: HR Consultants 
  • Location:Udaipur,Rajasthan 

With a stronghold in tier-2 and tier-3 cities, Zigsaw consultancy is currently operating in all of India’s major cities.This company is totally focussed on human resources and works closely with its alliance partners to find the best personnel. The consultancy has various customizable hiring plans which companies can choose.Additionally they have Free Hiring Model which works well with small and medium sized businesses for the recruiting companies. 


4. M.M. Enterprises 

  • Industry:Human Resources Consultants 
  • Location:Delhi 

M.M. Enterprises offers comprehensive HR solutions to the esteemed businesses.The consultancy offers workforce outsourcing with distinct client –specific needs and tailored solutions.It mainly focuses on employee leasing,staffing and placement services.It has the best HR professionals in the industry with comprehensive payroll services and resume writing services to kickstart the career of job seekers. 

6. Randstad 

  •  Industry:IT Staffing & Recruitment Consultants 
  •  Location: Chennai 

Established in 1992 Randstad was previously called “Ma Foi”. The agency has built a solid reputation in the placement industry by offering its clients high quality recruitment services.It has now regarded as one of the top recruitment agencies in India for HR services . With presence in over 20 cities Randstad is the second largest recruiting- firm in the world.The company provides various HR services including hiring people on temporary and permanent contracts, offering HR-based solutions, and providing in-house services. 

7. Kelly Services 

  • Industry:HR Consultants 
  • Location:Pune 

Kelly is an American Multinational recruiting firm established in America in 1946.It quickly  expanded overseas and started its operation in India in 2001.Kelly support has become a market leader in providing workforce solutions, including candidate’s recruiting client service, and staffing solution across industries.The HR division of Kelly services has won many awards for its policies,quality procedures,involvement in the community in the community, and supplier diversity.Kelly services specializes in hiring scientific positions for scientific positions,mid-senior level positions, engineering recruitments, IT recruitments,financial services, and functional recruitment. 

8. Teamlease Services 

  • Industry:Recruitment Consultants 
  • Location: India 

Founded in 2002 Teamlease services is one of the top recruitment consultants in India having more than 1700 workers and 2500 clients nationwide.Its mission is “Putting India to work”. It is ranked eighth in the Fortune India magazine.Today Teamlease services employs more than 1.7 million people and have about 2 lac associates dispersed across dispersed across the country’s 6600+ locations.The company offers wide range of services like evaluations,corporate training programs in payroll outsourcing, temporary and permanent staffing, regulatory compliances, and more. 

9. Adecco India 

  • Industry:Staffing&Recruitment 
  • Location:Bangalore 

Adecco is a bangalore-based recruitment firm that has expanded its offerings and has produced amazing results by offering top-notch services to its customers. 

10. Sutra HR 

  • Industry:HR Consultants 
  • Location:Mumbai 

Sutra HR was founded in 2008 and now has more than 500 clients connected to various industries.The company has major clients in various countries in Malaysia,Singapore,the Middle East,Indonesia, and the UK. 

11. CareerNet 

  • Industry:Recruitment consultants 
  • Bangalore 

  CareerNet was started in 1999 and now one of the top ten recruitment firms in India.The company offers workforce solution to ite customers all over the world.CareerNet offers its clients excellent and affordable recruitment solutions.The IT, FMC,banking,knowledge services, and insurance industries are the major CareerNet’s clients. 

Potential Earnings 

The Placement officer remunerations depends on his experience and the type of institution where he works.Generally the starting  salary ranges from INR 3.5lacs to INR 6 lacs per annum when one joins as assistant placement officer.As the experience grows the salary can reach INR 20 lacs per annum or even higher. 



In today’s high profile and fast paced life when you do not have time to even wink, placement officers play a very important role in your career process. They have become indispensable by helping you with proper career guidance as you advance in your career path.Their knowledge and experience in dealing with the right people in the industry along with back- up of professional recruiting firms have helped millions of job-seekers to get proper jobs matching their qualifications and experience in the industry.

Further they are also given career guidance at the time of Job-switching where the post  placement support officer provides them with information of new companies and other facilities like salary,location of work etc. beforehand to make their placement easier and comfortable to the new company.He also give them impartial feedback from the employers from time to time so he can improve his performance in the company. 

No doubt Placement officers have become synonymous with the industry. No body wants to be recruited directly now but through recruiting agents. The scope of placement officer has increased tremendously as a career and more people want become one to help others like them to seek jobs.

With the rapid growth in the industry and the complication arising in getting jobs especially for job seekers coming  from small towns to big cities the role of placement officers has become even more important and respectable with better remuneration.


Storekeeper 2023 — An introduction to the dynamic inventory management

In today’s world, where the manufacturing industry is the backbone to our economy, maintaining inventory has become a must for all industries. It will take us an immense awareness of certain expectations to keep guard of things with us and realise which and where things belong. That is what a Storekeeper does in their everyday work life. To be successful in the Career as Storekeeper we must perform multiple tasks and work under pressure while staying proficient with clients.

What is a Storekeeper?

Storekeeper 2023-- A Dynamic way to Introduce inventory management

A storekeeper is a person who is responsible for maintaining goods in the warehouse at all stages. The stages include the time of moving goods into the warehouse, preserving and storing them to the stage of moving goods out of the warehouse, and ensuring requirements of quality and quantity of goods well. He also checks the inventory and maintains inventory records.

Storekeeper Definition 

Storekeepers are highly skilled professionals who manage, supervise, or perform a variety of tasks like ordering, receiving, storing, accounting, distributing, shipping, and issuing equipment, apparatus, materials, and supplies. They also perform other related duties as required.

Storekeeper Job Description


Storekeepers are highly skilled professionals responsible for managing all operations of the storeroom of an organisation. Their job responsibilities require them to ensure that all store personnel working under them in a storeroom are following the general rules and regulations of the organization while maintaining an orderly and safe working environment.They must maintain and revamp inventory management system while preparing reports for their superiors. It is the storekeeper’s duty to respond to customer requests and provide them with a service with other divisions of the materials management department.

A storekeeper must undertake the following tasks:

1. Implementing goods receipt/issue procedures 

  • The storekeeper must receive detailed and accurate information about the goods arriving at the warehouse. He must carefully check and record the quantity and condition of goods while moving out of the warehouse.
  • He must take care to check goods receipt or issue requisition documents under regulations to ensure that quality goods are delivered to the right object to avoid confusion.
  • He must be able to receive delivery documents, make goods issue requests, information on the goods management system and transfer it to the purchasing or accounting department under regulations to serve the next stage.
  • He is responsible for arranging neat and clean locations and premises to receive goods in a convenient, fast, and timesaving way when there is information on goods receipt.
  • He must ensure that the goods receipt and issue process does not damage the goods.
  • He must record specifically the goods received note and goods delivery note to list the quantity of the goods.
  • He must track the number of goods receipt/issues each day and compare with the minimum norm to maintain warehouse efficiency.

2. Tracking inventory 

  • He must be able to keep track of minimum inventory and stock counts for the day.
  • It is the his to ensure that the goods always have a reasonable minimum inventory level in case the partner unexpectedly requests a large quantity of goods or there is damaged goods during transportation.
  • He must advice the director to change the minimum norm of the warehouse to provide a timely solution when there is a sudden change in the quantity or quality of goods .

3. Putting goods in the warehouse 

  • He must be able to make a purchase requisition form according to plan.
  • Make goods purchasing and issue procedures.
  • He must follow up the goods receipt process, speed up purchasing, buy raw materials to ensure warehouse performance, and provide essential materials for the production process.

4. Arranging goods in the warehouse 

  • A storekeeper must make records of warehouse changes. He must update the warehouse plan when there is a change.
  • All goods must be arranged neatly, scientifically, clearly, and cleanly as required.
    He must make warehouse records and take stock of goods.
  • It is the duty of the storekeeper to ensure warehouse records. This helps in making warehouse management easy. The warehouse record must be classified according to each type of goods, including item code, expiry date, size, and required object.
  • He  must take stock of goods. It helps control the amount of goods circulation and inventory. Therefore, he detects defective goods by making a list to send to the functional department for handling.

5.  Complying with regulations on fire prevention 

  • A storekeeper must be capable of ensuring the warehouse’s safety because the warehouse is a place where goods are arranged, in a dry environment with many flammable materials. Therefore, it is always a potential fire hazard. Therefore, he must have fire prevention measures in the goods arrangement and have firefighting solutions in the worst situation.

How to become a Storekeeper?

Storekeeper 2023-- A Dynamic way to Introduce inventory management

Like every job that requires you to complete certain steps, a storekeeper career is no exception. You must follow these steps to become a storekeeper.

Step 1: Complete you 10+2  

You must complete your 12th or higher secondary examination as a minimum qualification in your career path to become a storekeeper.  

Step2: Earn a bachelor’s degree 

While most of the employers hire candidates for storekeepers with 10+2 qualifications, many prefer candidates with bachelor’s degree.

Step 3: Gain work experience 

Most employers prefer candidates with one or more years of work experience.

Step 4: Math and accounting skills 

Math is a very important skill for a storekeeper in his daily operations. Similarly, knowledge of basic accounting is found suitable for any storekeeper’s job.

Step 4: Focus on job shadowing

Job shadowing has become an important role-playing step in a similar position to learn more about any job. So, if you want to learn more about this job you can request your mentor or friend in a similar position to allow job-shadowing. It also helps you to determine whether it is a good career choice for you.

Skills of a storekeeper 

Here are some skills that you require for a successful career as a storekeeper.

  • Good communication and Interpersonal skills 

A storekeeper job involves interacting with colleagues, clients, employers and even third-party vendors. Therefore, it is important for him to have excellent communication skills. Good Interpersonal skills help you to interact with others in a courteous and friendly manner resulting in creating an amiable work environment. Also, you can work efficiently and effectively in a team if you have good interpersonal skills.

  • Excellent Computer skills 

All storekeepers are expected to have a working knowledge of computers. They must be able to work on applications like spreadsheets and word processors. You must be proficient in using barcode scanners, directed picking systems and automated equipment.

  • Good Organizational Skills 

Having good organizational skills is necessary for storekeepers to work more efficiently and avoid unnecessary accidents. Employers prefer candidates who are well-organized and detail oriented.

  • Proficiency in Inventory Management 

As a storekeeper you must have a good and thorough working knowledge of different inventory systems, store keeping methods and procedures. Most companies prefer storekeepers using inventory management software.

  • Data Entry skills 

Data entry skill is yet another skill for the storekeepers that is required by the employers. They are required to maintain perpetual tracking spreadsheets and maintain perpetual inventory records of material received and issued.

  • Dexterity 

Candidates who can perform physical tasks such as lifting inventories and heavy objects are always preferred by the employers. Thus, a candidate must have strong physical stamina. Therefore, dexterity is an essential skill in a storekeeper’s job.

Educational Qualification of a Storekeeper 

Storekeeper 2023 -- An introduction to the dynamic inventory management

A storekeeper must have completed at least his high school examination. Previous experience in a management position is desirable for his career growth. He must have excellent verbal and written communication skills and must be proficient with computers.

The Diploma in Storekeeper course is a certificate course and is designed as a stepping stone for students who want to pursue their career in supply chain management and be in a management team.

The diploma course offers you a basic understanding of various operations carried out by storekeepers and how they impact the overall supply chain process. The course also provides examples of how storekeepers can improve productivity, reduce wastage and enhance customer satisfaction.

The curriculum of Diploma in storekeeper course in given below:

  • Introduction to store management and inventory control
  • Principles of retailing Sales techniques
  • Sales techniques Marketing principles and practices.
  • Principles of costing and pricing
  • Store auditing and controls
  • Retail accounting systems

Here are the top diplomas in storekeeper in India

  • NIMS Training Academy
  • Kudumbashree Diploma centre
  • Global Education & Management Academy (GEMA), Chennai, Tamil Nadu
  • Sivananda institute of Higher education and research, Coimbatore
  • Vibgyor International School of Business and Humanities (VIBGYOR), Bangalore.

The fee structure for Diploma in Storekeeper is Rs.14000 only.

Scope of Store Keeping Career

Storekeeper 2023-- A Dynamic way to Introduce inventory management

Storekeeper jobs are mainly found in a central receiving, or departmental stores facility. He involved in the complete range of stores or receiving functions. The storekeeper has six levels in management.

Level 1: Assistant Storekeeper 

Assistant storekeeper is the entry level. Here one must perform manual duties like receiving, storing, issuing, distributing, shipping. They also must maintain inventory of supplies, materials, equipment and apparatus. Their job is to assist in receipt of goods by unloading, moving and counting packages, drums, crates, or other containers or items. They also check for obvious damage and log in goods received under close supervision.

Level 2: Storekeeper 

Storekeeper is at the operational level. In this level the storekeeper operates a departmental stores facility or works in a large stores operation providing service to grants, contracts and projects. They must perform operational duties like ordering, receiving, storing, inventory, issuing, distributing, shipping and record keeping. They must determine stock items and stock levels. They locate and order non-stock items and equipment parts. Prepare and expedite orders. They inspect items received, handle freight claims, quantity shortages, breakage, duplicate shipments, and back orders.

It is the storekeeper’s responsibility to help their coworkers with procedures or methods of handling claims for damage, quantity shortages, duplicate shipments, back orders, returned goods, inventory shortages, and other stores procedures. They must specialise in one or more stores’ activities or have responsibility for a complete stores facility handling a limited variety of materials.

Level 3: Store Worker 

Store workers require the operation of powered materials handling equipment.  In this level a store worker performs operational duties in the receipt, storage, and issue of material and use powered or unpowered materials handling equipment as required.

Store workers also load and unload trucks or other common carriers and transport material to specified areas either by hand or by use of powered or unpowered materials-handling equipment. They assist in the unpacking of the goods and in the inspection of incoming material against invoices or bills of lading to verify items and quantities received. They palletize and move material to designated locations and select specific items and assemble material in shipping bays. The Stores Worker class is different from the Storekeeper class in that here they are required to operate forklift trucks and/or other powered materials-handling equipment which require special skills in the palletizing or handling of materials and/or supplies.

Level 4: Senior Storekeeper 

Senior storekeeper is the advanced operational supervisory level. The senior storekeepers are responsible for the operation of a store’s facility or division having an annual cost of goods of less than $250,000 and an inventory exceeding $50,000. Senior Store Keeper also must supervise other Storekeepers They are responsible for work of greater complexity and responsibility like stock selection, space planning, etc. than that found at the operational level as evidenced by need for technical experience and/or training.

Level 5: Store Stores Supervisor 

The Stores Supervisor level is the full supervisory level. Under direction, incumbents have responsibility for the operation and supervision of a store’s facility or a major section in a facility having annual cost of goods ranging from $250,000 to $600,000.

Stores Supervisors plan budgetary needs, and  determine appropriate stock control methods and operating policies and  procedures. They also plan, organize, and direct the following functions like space and staffing requirements, stock selection and procurement, customer service, customer and vendor relations, planned purchasing coordination, and inventory management.

Level 6: Senior Stores Supervisor 

Senior Stores Supervisor is at the first managerial level. Under general direction, incumbents have responsibility for management of a store’s facility or a major division in a large store’s facility having an annual cost of goods ranging from $600,000 to $1,000,000. Senior Stores Supervisors plan the budgetary needs and determine appropriate stock control methods and operating policies and procedures. He also plans, organizes and directs the following functions: space and staffing requirements, stock selection and procurement, customer service, customer and vendor relations, planned purchasing coordination, and inventory management.

What is the salary of a storekeeper  in India?

The salary of the storekeeper in India ranges between 0.2 lakhs to Rs 5.5 lacs per annum with an average annual salary of Rs 2.2 lakhs per annum. The salary varies depending on different parameters like experience, qualification and job location. Some cities pay a higher salary than others. This number can also vary depending on the type of products and services provided by the store.

Here are a few of the companies employing storekeepers along with their salaries.

  • Army Ordnance corps – Rs 6.7 lacs per annum
  • Consolidated Contractor — Rs 6.1 lacs per annum
  • Saudi Binladin Group — Rs5.3 lacs per annum.
  • Indian Army — Rs 5.2 lakhs per annum.
  • Dodsal Engineering & Construction — Rs 5.2 lacs per annum.

Here is the list of top paying industries for storekeeper in India

  • Engineering & Construction – Rs 3.2 lacs per annum
  • Real Estate – Rs 2.9 lakhs per annum
  • Industrial Machinery – Rs 2.6 lakhs per annum
  • Automobile – Rs 2.3 lakhs per annum
  • Auto Components – Rs 2 lacs per annum.


Most employers and companies look for a full-time storekeeper who is well organized with experience of a few years. He must be able to handle all stocks and inventory and must be able to ensure store maintenance. The ideal candidate for a Storekeeper job is the one who can multitask and possesses a learning aptitude. He must have robust organizational skills and strong attention to detail while remaining professional.

Storekeeping is a kind of a job where you remain behind the scenes. Yet it has its own merits. If you have got the above skills to become a storekeeper and the relevant education qualifications and experience, you deserve to become a storekeeper.