Machinists 2022– A Dynamic and Blistering Career to Content With

In today’s world, the role of machines has become an indispensable part of our life. Men and Machines have learned to coexist with each other with the latter acting as a dutiful servant for the Machinists.

It is hard to think of one existing without the use of machines even in the most primitive form.

As a profession, Machinists are fast-growing with few barriers to entry. Machinists are always learning because machine technology evolves rapidly.

What are Machinists?

Machinists 2022-- A Dynamic and Blistering Career to Content With

Machinists are manufacturing professionals. They set up and operate machine tools that are both mechanically and computer-controlled. Also, they have knowledge of tooling and materials required to create setups on machine tools. Some of these machine tools are milling machines, grinders or lathes that produce precision metal parts. A Machinist repairs machinery or manufactures replacement parts for broken machines.

Job description of Machinists.

Machinists 2022-- A Dynamic and Blistering Career to Content With

Machinists use machinery tools to make metal works, they create pieces such as automobile pistons, hydraulic components, steel bolts, anti-lock brakes, and so on. They use blueprints or computer-aided design (CAD) to complete their work. Machinists also monitor cutting paths as well as the speed and feed of machines.

In short, Machinists work for:

  • Machinery and equipment machinery
  • Motor vehicles, auto parts, and aircraft plants.
  • Factories for shaped metal parts.
  • Workshops

Their tasks include;

  • Securing and adjusting workpieces
  • Securing and aligning cutting tools
  • Milling, shaping, grinding, and drilling machine parts to specifications.
  • Smoothening product surfaces.
  • Measuring and testing finished products
  • Submitting finished products to customers and making modifications when necessary.

Here are a few examples of Machinists:

  • Automotive Machinists
  • Aviation Machinists
  • General Machinists
  • Tooling Inspectors
  • Electrical Machinists
  • Machining inspectors
  • Machinists’ diesel design
  • CNC (Computer Numerical Control) machinists
  • CNC MachineOperator
  • Head Machinist
  • Motor Machinists
  • Metal Machinist
  • Engine Machinists

How do we become a Machinist?

Machinists 2022-- A Dynamic and Blistering Career to Content With

To become a Machinist, we require Skills and basic educational qualifications. This is because skilled machinists have a better chance of hiring than unskilled machinists.

Skills required to become a Machinist

A few of the skills that employers require from the Machinists are:

  • Analytical Skills such as the ability to understand the technical blueprints, models, and terminology needed to craft components and products.
  • Manual dexterity and accuracy are required by Machinists to create parts and follow designs to a millimeter.
  • Many machinists require Physical Stamina to stand and perform repetitive movements for a long period.
  • Mathematical abilities are necessary for machinists to understand and use computer applications and measuring machines.
  • Machinists are required to examine blueprints and visualize the project they need to complete. For that, they require Critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
  • Machinists require mechanical skills to know how to operate machine tools such as grinding, milling machines, water and laser cutting machines, latches, and wire electrical discharge machines.

Other than the above skills there are few specific skills that employers search for in you as a skilled machinist. They look for candidates who have a basic understanding of metal networking processes, computerized measuring machines, and technical skills. These are

  • Computer numerical control (CNC) programming and machining skills
  • Technical writing and comprehension
  • Geometric dimensioning and tolerance.
  • Additive manufacturing
  • CAD and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology
  • Modeling and simulation


Here are a few steps that you should undertake to become a Machinist.

Step 1 Research Job duties 

You must start by researching different job duties depending on your job title. Different job titles have different roles and responsibilities. You have to determine which job profile suits you. These profiles include setting up tools and machinery, monitoring metal parts heating and cooling temperatures, and cutting and adjusting workpieces. 

Step 2. Get a high school degree 

You must complete your secondary education and earn a high school diploma in subjects like maths, geometry or trigonometry. You may also attend extra classes in drafting, metal works, and blueprint reading. If you are applying for advanced machinist positions you might have to use physics and advanced calculus. You must be proficient in computers as you will most probably work in computer-aided machinery.

Step 3. Complete a machinist post-graduate program 

You must be able to complete a two-year program at a community college or technical school to further your education. These programs will help you to an associate degree and teach advanced skills such as:

  • Cutting and welding tools manipulation
  • Design and blueprint reading
  • Computer-aided design
  • Computer numerical control
  • Computer-aided manufacturing.
  • Function and programming of computer numerically controlled machines.

Step 4. Pursue Training 

As a machinist trainee, you are required to get an on-the-job-training for at least one year after entering the industry. If you have just finished high school you will have to go for on-the-job training for 12 to 18 months.

The most common training program for an aspiring machinist is an apprentice program for 4 years. It requires you to get a high school diploma or GED and classes in trigonometry and algebra. Many of these apprentice programs are sponsored by manufacturers. The program requires you to work for 40 hours per week. These programs help you to study various aspects of the machinery industry that including metallurgy, and CNC machines, and advance to more complex tasks.

Step 5.  Certification 

You must get a Certification to improve your skills and demonstrate your qualifications. You can get your certification through colleges and training institutes. Here are a few of the certifications you can pursue.


  • The National Institute of Metalworking Skills (NIMS) credentials: By passing performance-based examinations that include written and practical components. You can earn credentials such as Certified Journeywork, CNC Setup Programmer, or NIMS Certified Machinist.
  • Journey-level Certification: The state apprentice board offers this certification to Machinists.
  • The Manufacturing Institute’s Skills Certification System: This industry-driven program aims to align education.

You become a Certified Machinist after completing your certification which has more value in the industry.

Step 6. Advance your career

You might become a CNC programmer or advance into managerial positions. If you want to start your own business you can work as an independent contractor after gaining experience.

Institutes offering training in Machinists in India 

  1. Alt Training College

Bangalore, Karnataka

   2. St. Joseph Industrial Training Institute’s courses

Mangalore, Karnataka

    3. Bharathidasan University Constituent Arts and Science College

Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu

    4. Bright Future ITI

Ambala, Haryana

    5. Joseph Industrial Training Institute

Mumbai Maharashtra


Here are a few of the entrance exams to several institutes and colleges to provide admission to students.

 Entrance exams for Machinists 

  • IIT Jee Main: Joint entrance exam.
  • BIT SAT: Birla Institute of Science and Technology
  • VITEEE: Vellore Institute of Technology Engineering Entrance Examination
  • KIITEE: Kerala Institute of Industrial Technology Entrance Exam
  • SRM JEE: SRM Joint Entrance Exam


The Scope for Machinists 

Machinists 2022-- A Dynamic and Blistering Career to Content With

Machinists have a wide scope of Employability. It ranges from self-employment and contractual employment to Industrial jobs. Machinists, Grinder, Operator of various types of power-driven metal cutting or grinding machines in production manufacturing industrial infrastructure, and defense organizations

A career as a machinist is a great opportunity for anyone willing to put in the time and effort. There is a limited barrier to entry, a high starting salary, and a positive job outlook.

The Demand for Machinists is projected to grow by 7% from 2020 to 2030. There will be 47,500 job openings for machinists and tool die makers each year for a decade.

For example, CNC Machinists are in high demand, especially those who have programming skills and advanced knowledge of advanced machinery.

How much does a Machinist Earn?

CNC machinists earn an average salary of Rs 20,690. A CNC operator earns Rs13,981 per month. A machine operator earns Rs14,615 per month, a manual machinist earns Rs 30,755 and a CNC programmer earns about Rs 19,544.

The average salary of machinists in India is Rs 15,546 per month.

Here are a few of the Top Machinist Companies in India

  1. ABC Enterprises
  1. Amar
  1. Veljan Hydrair Ltd.
  1. DIRAA HR Services


Other than that, there are large machinery shops near and around you that you can search and apply for.










Cameraman 2022-An Invitation to an Exciting and Prolific career

We all love to watch television and movies in the cinema hall. We enjoy them. We talk about them and their star cast. We talk about how good or bad the actor and their acting was especially in the lead roles. We talk about the Director. But we hardly remember persons who toiled behind the scenes and make us watch them as they are. Some of these persons are the Cameraman, Sound Recordist, screenwriter, cinematographer, film editor, producer, and other crew members who make it happen.

What is the Definition of a Cameraman?

Cameraman 2022-An Invitation to an Exciting and Prolific career

A cameraman is a person who is responsible for recording shots for a variety of films and broadcast purposes. They capture video images that enhance television shows or broadcast news programs. These people work in the studio or on the scenes of a news story that involves both live and recorded broadcasts. A cameraman uses all the technical aspects of lenses, filters, zooms, and other camera settings to capture scenes as per the clients’ requirements and film directors.

What does the cameraman do?

The job responsibility of a cameraman operator arranges from operating the camera equipment to recording video. They are also responsible for setting up cameras and lighting. They have to use different lenses and angles and panning shots before recording sessions. They must know how to choose lenses, films, and filters. They have to work closely with the other crew members and the director during the shooting.

A cameraman must be able to create special effects, add the right mix of tone, mood, etc to the picture, and must be adept with the use of light and exposure techniques.

In short, a cameraman plays an indispensable role when making a video or broadcasts for television or for cinema hall.

How do you become a Cameraman?

Cameraman 2022-An Invitation to an Exciting and Prolific career


In case you want to work in the entertainment industry, a career as a cameraman is one way to do so. But being a cameraman requires experience with the camera and video equipment.

You must possess these skills in order to start a career as a cameraman.

  • Aesthetic Interest
  • Technical Skill
  • Good Observation
  • Visual creativity
  • Teamwork
  • Ability to handle heavy equipment

In a survey, it was found that around 67% of cameramen are graduates and 3.7% are postgraduate. However, you can become a cameraman even after you have passed high school.

In order to become a cameraman, you may require some experience such as production assistance or camera operator. Other than a passion for the film industry you will need three key elements to be a success in your career as a cameraman. Let us explore the list of steps for you to become a cameraman.

These three steps are

  1. Diploma in Cinematography.
  2. An internship as a cameraman.
  3. Effective career development skills.

Step 1: Diploma in Cinematography

A diploma in Cinematography is a profession for those who are eager, committed, and passionate about a career in filmmaking. A diploma in cinematography course primarily teaches you about the camera and light works working on film production, television production, or any other live event. You also learn to make technical and artistic decisions related to the image.

You learn important concepts in cinematography like visual storytelling, camera techniques, lighting methods, scene composition, and working with the entire film crew. The diploma in cinematography introduces students to concepts like editing through short film project genres, film lighting, basics of cinematography, and digital cinematography.

A two-year Diploma in cinematography is sufficient to start a career in movies, television, and documentaries. The course also helps students in gaining experience in fieldwork.

Step 2: An Internship in Cinematography

A good film school will give its students access to campus job boards, social media pages, and career development advisors to assist in finding cameraman internships. The internship is important as all good cameraman positions require you to complete a cameraman internship.

Step 3: Effective career Development skills

Once you have completed your internship, you will have all the skills required for the job as a cameraman for news, TV, or movie production. These skills will help you in finding the right job in the industry.

Prestigious Institutes for Cinematography in India 

  • Film and Television in India
  • National Institute of Film and Fine arts
  • Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute.
  • Biju Patnaik Film & TV Institute, Cuttack
  • Deviprasad Goenka Management College of Media Studies, Mumbai
  • Indian Institute of Mass Communication (I.I.M.C.) New Delhi
  • Institute of New Media Development and Research, Pune
  • National Institute of Design
  • SARK Institute of Film Studies, Kolkata
  • Government Film & Television Institute, Hessarghatta Road, Bangalore
  • CRAFT Film School, New Delhi

The average fee for Diploma in Cinematography course would range between INR 35,000 and INR 1,25,000.

Topics Covered in these Institutes 

A full-time Diploma in Cinematography course of two years has the following modules which are much more than a short-term course that covers broader concepts. Here are a few of the modules that are covered in the syllabus:


Module Topics Covered
Film Dimension and Packaging
Negative and positive perforation


Cores and camera spool


CAN. label information



Process and Printing
Various sections of the Motion picture lab


Liquid gate printing


Scene to scene color correction


Black and white film printing


Color correction effect


Scene to scene color correction



Films for Motion Pictures


Screening of films


Studying the conceptual lighting


Music video-styling of lighting



Motion Picture Cameras


Analysis of Claw motion


Registration pin




Camera Motors


Reverse Movement


Frames per sec



Transfer of Film to Video


Tele-cine basic


Type of Tele-cine machine


Frame per sec


File type


Digital Intermediate




Various Camera Test


The physical condition of the camera and lenses


Optical path and focusing






Eyepiece /viewfinder/ground glass



Types of film Cameras








16. SR-II








Cinema Projection


Screen luminance


Print loading and rewind


Random points about projection


Electronic Display Devices



Special Cinematography


Rigging the camera


Underwater shooting


Shooting in snow


Aerial photography



Digital film making


LFR (Laser Film Recorder)


DI (Digital Intermediate)




The course fees for Diploma in Cinematography range from INR 35,000 and INR 1,25,000.

Why should you become a Cameraman?

Cameraman 2022-An Invitation to an Exciting and Prolific career


A cameraman records shots for a variety of films and broadcasting purposes. His job responsibility includes cleaning, testing, and maintaining his equipment. They use technical aspects of lenses, filters, zooms, and other scenes.

A cameraman can work in a variety of settings, including in television studios, production studios, sports venues, or at private events such as weddings. They may also work on location at remote destinations for films, music videos, documentaries, commercials, short films, or advertisements.

The career as a cameraman has become a lucrative option as their requirement is forever high due to the ever-expanding film and television industry. The cameraman job vacancy is going to increase further in the near future due to the rapid globalization of the entertainment industry.

Diploma in cinematography graduates may take up entry-level job roles in the capacity of cameraman production, motion control operator, camera operator, and camera assistant.

Here are the following job profiles of cameraman:

  • Director of Photography
  • Cinematographer
  • Video Editor
  • Cameraman
  • Videographer.


The top recruiters for cinematographers are Doordarshan in the government, Private TV channels, film studios, television studios, news studios, and corporate. They can start their own as a freelance cameraman, especially in wedding photography.

The scope and future prospects for a cameraman depend on factors like the nature of work and largely on their personal contacts and references.

What is the salary of a Cinematographer? 

At the entry level, a cinematographer can earn between Rs 7,000 to Rs 8,000 per month. However, with experience, the cinematographer can earn between Rs 40,000 and 50,000 per month.

Future Prospects for Cameraman

As per the Bureau of Labor Statistics, there is an increase of 18 percent from 2019 to 2029 in the number of people employed as cameramen. This is an exceptionally fast rate growth rate. This increase can be attributed to the fact that there is a growth in the number of internet platforms like streaming services and developments in special effects that require an experienced cameraman to produce the desired result.





News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career

We all after a certain age watch News on television or hear it on the radio. We read daily newspapers and magazines for news. We do this because we are interested in what is happening in and around us. We want to hear and watch events be it sports, war, disasters, entertainment, or elections pertaining to our interests and that can affect us from our neighborhood to places from all over the world both live and recorded. Not only do they love to watch them but also analyze them. The persons who bring all this to us in the media are called News Anchors.       

News anchoring is a glamorous and flourishing profession due to the very fact that the media and mass communication industry is growing at a tremendous pace both in India and worldwide. You can gauge this fact by seeing the number of news channels on television.  

What is News? 

News is an update on current events. The news is disseminated to us by a number of media publishing houses, postal systems, broadcasting, digital communication, or evidence from spectators and incident witnesses.  

What is News Anchoring? 

News Anchoring is a profession where the news anchor reports on local, national, or international news and events to its audience on radio, television, and even on social media on the internet. The topics covered may include weather, sports, politics, entertainment, economy/business, and technology. News anchors either broadcast live from the studio or make a visit to the vents to gather and share information on events on camera. 

Who are the News Anchors? 

News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career

A news anchor is a journalist who reports to the public at large on local, regional, and foreign news reports and events occurring. Their main task is to work closely with reporters to collect information, broadcast newscasts, and also present news stories in an insightful, impartial and meaningful manner as a lead journalist on television to the viewers. The news anchor, these people anchor a news channel together or keep it up to date. 

They also have to maintain continuity in their news stories between the segments. News anchors who are successful have their fans, captured viewers who trust and prioritize them in a particular market over other news channels.  

A few of the famous news anchors in India are Barkha Dutt, Rahul Kanwal, Rajat Sharma, Rajdeep Sardesai, Pranab, Arnab Goswamy, Gaurav Kalra, Ravish Kumar, Nidhi Rajdan,  Shewate Singh, Abhigyan Prakash, and Vikram Chandra.

What does the News Anchor do? 

News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career 


The News Anchor’s job is to analyze, interpret and broadcast news received from various sources. Here is the news anchor job description.  

  • Debriefing 

  It is just after the newscast we have Debriefing. Debriefing is done to discuss all the technical issues, failures and successes, and discussing strengths and weaknesses with all journalists and technicians involved in the newscast. Here an analysis of the newscast may be done to help focus on improving the following newscast. 

  • Attend Meetings 

  The Newsroom meeting is held six to eight hours before the newscast to create a news broadcast of the day. The meeting lasts for about twenty to forty minutes. Every meeting has its own agenda and starts with a rundown of the news. Although it is conducted for News Anchors, the managers and technical staff are also included in the meeting. 

  • Newscasting 

   A Newscast is defined as a compilation of news segments that have been edited. It lasts for about 22 minutes. A newscast is made by news anchors and directors. News anchors write and deliver the newscast in such a way that the viewers can experience a concise selection of news. 

  • Preparatory meeting 

  The Preparatory meeting occurs four to two hours prior to the newscast. The news anchor settles the rundown of the newscast with the help of the director. This rundown is used by all production departments, such as on-set cameramen, news anchors, engineering personnel, assistant director, visual effects staff, and sound engineers.  


What are the Types of News Anchors? 

News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career


Besides being a news anchor there are several other career paths related to new anchors. Here are a few of them. 

  • Columnist 

Columnists write in a series for the journals, They generate an article offering critique and opinions. Columns appear in the form of small paragraphs in Newspapers, magazines as well other editorials. Columnists can write on any topic that strikes them like sports, health, and entertainment. 

  • News Editor 

News editors evaluate various prints and media attributes to improve the job of the editor. They manage and produce news with accuracy, flow, and timeliness. They develop creative and specific approaches to improve reporting of daily news. News readers also Monitor and update content in order to meet the needs of their readers. 

  • Assignment reporter 

These reporters report prominent events. Their work involves writing articles about community news incidents like road accidents, fire accidents, or celebrity appearances. They work at the assignment desk which is the newsroom nerve room. 

  • Sports Reporter 

Sports reporters collect relevant information on sports and publish it as sports news. They also attend sports events, and interview sportsmen, coaches, and other people involved in sports.  

  • Business Reporter 

Business reporters investigate business stories and establish new concepts for business news reporting. They have to remain updated on the latest news and events in the industry. 

  • Entertainment reporter 

Entertainment reporters are reporters who report news and events from arts and entertainment. They also write blogs; broadcast news reports or online articles. They report the story and activities in the film industry, television, and music.  

What are the Skills required to become a News Anchor? 

News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career

Here are a few of the skills that one must possess to become a News Anchor.

1. Communication Skills

A good news anchor must have excellent communication skills both in verbal and written. They must be excellent orators. They must be able to perform comfortably, especially in front of the camera. 

 2. Ability to report accurately 

A good news reporter must be an ethical reporter. He must write and report the events accurately regardless of any prejudice or bias. They need to look at each and every aspect of the issue in detail. 

3. Critical & Creative Thinking 

A news anchor must have the ability to think creatively and critically since they have to report news immediately while keeping the audience engaged with the news.  

4. Interviewing Skills 

The ability to interview in front of the camera in such a way so as to keep the viewers engaged is one of the skills that every news reporter or anchor must possess. 

5. Stress Tolerance 

The news anchor must be able to work and meet the deadlines. They must be able to cope with the stress well. 

6. Presence of mind 

News anchors may have to do multiple shows on different topics like debates, interviewing a celebrity or flash news. Sometimes they have to handle situations where they need a strong presence of mind. 

7. Leadership 

News anchors must be able to coordinate and host a show in front of the camera. He must also be able to groom young news anchors and producers. 

8. Social media skills 

Today social media like Facebook and Twitter face an important role in our daily lives. A successful news anchor must have good social media skills and must be able to explore social media platforms more and more.  

9. Appealing Personality 

An attractive, Pleasing personality and a well-groomed voice always go a long way for news anchors as they face the camera most of the time.  


How do you become a News Anchor/News Reporter? 



News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career


To start a news anchor career, you require a bachelor’s degree or a diploma in journalism, mass communication, or a related field. There are three career paths for you to become a news anchor: 

  1. You can complete your graduation in any subject and then go for a diploma or short-term certificate course in journalism and related fields.  
  2. You can complete graduation in any subject and then complete post-graduation in mass communication or journalism. 
  3. You can complete graduation in Journalism or Mass Communication.  

Eligibility to become a News Anchor 

News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career

  • Mass communication and Journalism institutes and courses are open to students of all streams 
  • You must have at least one language in your 12th. 
  • You must have a minimum of 50% in your 12th class. Some colleges also ask for a cut-off in the English language also. 
  • Most colleges have an entrance test for getting admission in Mass communication and journalism in G.K. English, reading comprehension, and reading. 


What do you study in Mass Communication/Journalism? 


Courses in Mass communication/journalism equip you with the necessary skills for efficient and effective visual communication of news and information relating to current events and public affairs. Their training prepares students for broadcast careers in reporting, producing, and newsroom management.  

Here is the list of subjects that you study in Mass Communication/Journalism; 

  • Print Media 
  • Reporting & Editing 
  • Behavioural Science 
  • News & Contemporary issues 
  • National & International issues 
  • Public Relations 
  • Media Management 
  • Advertising 
  • Visual Communication 
  • Film Theory and Practice. 


List of colleges for Graduation in Mass Communication/Journalism

News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career 

  • Delhi School of Journalism 
  • Lady Shri Ram College, Delhi University 
  • IP College for Women, Delhi University 
  • St Xavier’s College, Mumbai 
  • Jai Hind College, Mumbai University 
  • Indian Institute of Mass Communication, Delhi 
  • A.J.K. Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 
  • Xavier’s Institute of Communication 
  • Asian College of Journalism, Chennai 
  • Sri Aurbindo Institute of mass communication, Pondicherry 
  • Indian Institute of Journalism and New Media, Bangalore  
  • Symbiosis Institute of Media and Communication, Pune 
  • Sri Centre for Media Studies, Bengaluru 
  • Indian Academy of Mass Communication, Chennai 
  • Times School of Media, Bennett University, Noida  

List of colleges for Post-graduation in Mass communication/Journalism 

  • A.J.K. Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 
  • Indian Institute of Mass Communication, Delhi 
  • Asian College of Journalism, Chennai 
  • Xavier’s Institute of Communication 


Why Should you Become a News Anchor?   

News Anchor 2022- Welcome to a Glamorous and an Exciting Career
How to become a news anchor

Let us first look at the Industrial scenario of the Indian Media & Entertainment Industry 

  • India has the fifth largest media and entertainment market in the world. 
  • India’s media and entertainment industry is expected to grow by 10-12% per annum as per the CAGR report to 1000 billion dollars by 2030. 
  • By 2025 television households will cover 71% of total households in India at a growth rate of 5% per annum. 
  • In 2021 India’s television industry was worth 778 billion dollars.   
  • There are a total of 892 Television channels in India with 403 news channels. A few of the Indian news channels that dominate the market are Republic T.V., Times Now, and India Today news channel.  
  • The low cost of basic cable T.V. which is as low as $ 2 per month makes India the 2nd largest number of pay-TV subscribers in the world, next only to China. 


As the News channels in India grow at a rapid pace, both at the local and national levels, so are the news anchor job openings. Prominent news anchors are in demand as viewers tune in to get their news and reviews. News anchors deliver their news and also act as influencers to the audience.   

News anchor Salary Package 

The News anchor’s salary  in India at the start of your career ranges from Rs 12,000 to 25,000 per month. It can increase to Rs 50,000 to 100,000 per month with an experience of 5 years. Established and highest-paid news anchors in India can earn up to 12 lakhs to 50 lacs per annum. Abroad the salary of an experienced new anchor is between $87,000 to $110,000 per annum. 

In addition to the salary, News anchors are entitled to perks and allowances like Personal Grooming allowance, Personal Brand Building allowance, Allowance for contacting celebrities, politicians, and social workers, visiting different cities, etc.  


TV anchoring is regarded as Journalism at its best.TV anchors have become stars and role models in the world of journalism with a large number of fans. News anchors as a career are now well sought after. With the growth of digital media, the number of employment opportunities has increased at a rapid pace. However, competition for this job is high as the number of applicants is greater than vacancies. Even then job scenario for news anchor is quite promising, especially at the entry-level, 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Making a Dynamic Career in Medicine for lesser Mortals from Abroad

Becoming a doctor is a lifelong ambition which most of the students nurture through their early years of their education. We all have ambitions to become doctors, engineers, IAS, Military, Bankers etc and studying medicine is one of them. Preparing yourself for medical exams like NEET, FMGE and now NExT  is a difficult proposition if you are not so brilliant.

In our country or anywhere in the world a profession like doctor is a coveted one. This is because of the fact that it is not just highly paying but also due to the fact that it is a highly respected profession. 

Doctors are venerated a lot. After all they are the life savers. Their place is next only to God in the society. People look up to them to save their near and dear ones. Thanks to this position they possess they are being paid handsomely too.  

Doctors are much in demand in almost all parts of the world especially in third world countries like India where the health condition is bad. The demand and supply gap are wide. People in backward regions may not have seen doctors for months. The hospital’s conditions are pathetic. 

As per record in 2017, the population of India is 1.33 billion. This huge population is served by 1.8 million registered medical graduates. The ratio is 1.34 doctor for 1000 Indian citizens in 2017. The World Health Organization recommends a standard ratio of 1:1000 doctor to population ratio. Data shows that only eleven states among the 28 states in India meet this requirement. 

The outbreak of COVID 19 revealed the shortcomings of the Indian Health care. The WHO recommends 1 doctor, 2.5 nurses and 3.5 beds per 1000 population, while India has 0.65 doctors, 1.3 nurses, and 1,3 hospital beds per 1000 population. Although India has done a tremendous job in dealing with the pandemic. 

The public health care system operates in the dismissal ratio of 0.08 doctors per 1000 people. Studies show that India is facing a shortage of 2 million doctors. 

The high demand for doctors has resulted in the opening of more medical colleges. 

As the government is unable to cope with the rising demand, private medical colleges have been opened to meet the growing demand. Yet the demand has not been met. Now the students opt to go abroad and study medicine or dentistry there.  

Going abroad to study medicine is not new for a third world country like India Every other country takes pride in sending its talented students to developed nations to harness their potential. 

The important fact is where they send their children for further education. Destination to the right place is critical for parents. Also, the fear of getting duped plays an important factor for parents. Right college, Right subject for specialization, Standard facilities, Scope and Placements, and above all the finance that includes college and hostel fees, plus cost of other amenities like food, books etc. scholarships, all play an important part while planning for the career.  

How do you prepare for the medical exams? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
NEET Medical Examination

Studying medicine is expensive nowadays especially if you score low in the entrance exams. In India, you can appear and get admission to medical colleges through a common entrance exam for medicine NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test).

About 16 lacs appear for this entrance exam to fulfil their dreams to become doctors. The total number of seats in India for medical colleges is only about 90,000. More than half of these seats are in government colleges while the rest are in private colleges. 

To get into top medical colleges in India you must have a very good NEET score. These have quota systems like Government quota, management quota and NRI quota. Government quota is relatively cheaper than the Management and NRI quota which require high NEET Score and are very expensive. 

What is the Cost of Getting Admission in Medical College? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
China Medical University

It all depends on your NEET Score. High score means you get into a good medical college with a scholarship which reduces the financial burden. Less NEET score means you will get into a low-ranking medical college with no scholarship.  

The fees for a MBBS degree in a government college in India range from Rs 20,000 to 7.5 lacs while in a private college it may range from Rs 20 lacs to 1.2 crores. All depends on your NEET score. 

Top destination for medical students abroad and their fees 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
Kyiv University classroom
Kazakhastan Russian medical university
Kazakhastan Russian Medical University

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals

China, Russia and Ukraine account for 60% of the students who study medicine abroad. China accounts for the third of the total outflow followed by Russia and Ukraine. Other countries include Kyrgyzstan, Philippines, Kazakhstan, Nepal, Georgia, Armenia, Nepal and Bangladesh.   

The main reason for thousands of students from India going abroad to these countries for further studies are  

  1. Low Cost 
  2. Less Competition 
  3. Better Job opportunity to work in a European country

 1. Low Cost

Pursuing MBBS is relatively cheaper in these countries than in India. The fees for the entire MBBS course which is typically of six years in these countries including living expenses and cost of coaching to clear the screening test on return to India would cost around Rs 35 lacs in a decent college in any one of these countries. It is Rs 18 lacs to 25 lacs in lesser-known colleges and just 11 lakhs to 13 lacs in the colleges in China where they teach a mix of Chinese and allopathic systems. The living expenses in these countries is around 1.5 lac to 2 lacs per annum that amounts to a total of Rs 9 lacs. 

In India in comparison only the tuition fees for the MBBS course in a private medical college cost at least Rs 45 lakhs to Rs55 lacs for 4.5 years MBBS course. The management quota seats it is approximately around 30 lakhs to 70 lacs. For NRI quota the fees are approx. 90 lacs to 1.5 crores.  

2. Less Competition 

In India if you want to get a seat in a good medical college you must have an excellent NEET score. With a limited number of seats which are just 5% of the total number of students who appear for this entrance exam the going is going to be tough. In 2021 about 16 lacs applied for the NEET Exam and about 8.7 lacs cleared the NEET UG Exam. 

Although the quality of students going abroad may be poor, they have very good reasons to study medicine. Almost 90% of these students who study abroad fail to clear the qualifying exams in India according to the Indian government.  

3.  Better Job opportunity to work in a European country

The students upon completing their MBBS from these countries can go for MS there and then get a job in a hospital in these European countries.  

What is Foreign Medical Graduate examination (FMGE)? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals

Foreign Medical Graduate Examination (FMGE) also known as medical council of India screening test is a licensure examination conducted by the National Board of Examination (NBE) in India. 

FMGE is one of the mandatory requirements for an Indian citizen who has a medical degree from a college outside India and wants to practice medicine in India. FMGE was introduced in India in 2002 as a qualifying examination for Indian students who have obtained their medical degrees from countries outside India.  

What is FMGE Eligibility? 

You must be clear about the eligibility criteria of the exam before you appear for it. Here are the eligibility criteria that you must fulfil. 

  • You must be an overseas citizen of India (OCI) or a Bona-fide citizen of India. 
  • You must possess a primary medical degree that is confirmed by the concerned Indian embassy. It is mandatory that your qualifications are recognized by the country where the institute is situated so that you can enroll as a medical practitioner. 
  • You will have to submit documents as proof to support your educational claims. 
  • Students who studied medicine from countries like the US, UK, Australia, New Zealand, or Canada, are exempted from this exam as the universities of these countries are recognized by the MCI. 
  • Students from countries of the former Soviet Union, East European countries, China, Nepal, Philippines, and Caribbean countries are required to clear this exam.

FMGE is held twice a year. All the candidates are allowed three attempts to clear the exam. The difficulty level of FMGE is high and comparable to NEET-PG.

The National Medical Commission which replaced the Medical Council of India in 2020 released the draft regulations on FMGs that amends their requirements for screening tests. Starting from 2022, overseas graduates who intend to practice medicine in India will have to clear NExT within two years of completing their medical studies abroad. The draft regulation is expected to become official soon. 

This is not all. After clearing MCI Exam, you are required to apply for an internship in an Indian medical college for a period of one year.   

Why do we require Screening test for foreign students? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals

The FMGE or NExT screening test is extremely tough. It has a low pass percentage ranging from 14% to 20%. from year to year. The screening test is a kind of refinery to get better quality students. This is important also as all of them will serve the public in health care that is saving precious lives. It is alleged most of the students who study in these countries are of poor quality like the students of low-ranking medical colleges in India. The Indian govt. and the low pass percentage has only confirmed this allegation. 

This screening test also reveals the shortcomings and poor quality of the training and research provided by the medical colleges abroad. These students are lured by the unethical consultants who charge exorbitant fees to place these students to these colleges. No doubt these students fail to clear the screening tests despite paying so much. 

The licensing system assures that only deserving students get the license in India.  

What is the future of Indian Medical Students from Abroad? 

FMGE to NExT 2022- Studying MBBS abroad for lesser Mortals
China Medical University Classroom training

The career of Indian students who have completed an MBBS degree from abroad and want to settle in India depends on their screening test result. 

Students from the US, UK, and other countries from the west are much better off as they do not have to take this screening test. 

The new screening test prepared by the National Medical Commission; National Exit Test (NeXT) from 2022 is going to change all that. Now all the students who want to study in Indian Medical colleges after completing their MBBS from anywhere in the world will have to take NeXT for their PG.  

It all depends on how serious you are while taking medicine as your career, especially abroad. Though the standard of education, infrastructure and facilities may be excellent abroad it all depends on how serious the student is.  

Till 2018, anyone who have barely passed their 12 can get admission to these medical colleges abroad. But after 2018, the Indian government has made it compulsory for students to clear NEET and take admission abroad in medicine. 

When you go abroad for further studies you face two things; 

  • You get into a good university and come up with flying colors. 
  • You get into a bad university and are trapped for 6 years after paying a huge amount.

So, your career in Medicine depends on you. Your choice of medical college and your ability to clear the screening test after returning from abroad after completing your MBBS. 


Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

Data entry is a computer process that converts data into information or knowledge. In today’s corporate world with cutthroat competition the need for accurate and updated data has become a critical issue for all the companies big or small.  Here is where the role of data entry clerk has become central to the process. 

What are the types of Data entry jobs? 

Since there are different types of data entry jobs the role can vary from one industry to another. Some of the types of data entry jobs are:

  • Data Entry Clerk 

This type of job involves inputting of information which can be alphabetic or numeric, from one format to another and usually by keyboarding. 

  • Data Entry Keyer 

Data entry Keyer  enters or scans figures or data into computer software systems, often from other documents such as hard copies or paper documents. 

  • Transcriptionist 

Transcriptionist is a word-based job that involves listening to recordings and transcribing the information into reports or other word documents. 

  • Word Processor/Typist

The key duty of Typist is basic typing that includes entering information for text documents, correspondence and reports. 

Who are Data entry clerks? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

The Data entry clerks are valuable “behind the scenes” members of the corporate team who are responsible for inputting data from various sources into a database, ensuring that all necessary data are being entered and maintained accurately, thoroughly and timely.  The date entry clerks also must verify and edit data as needed. The data entry clerks also perform some general office tasks like scanning documents and answering phones.  

What does a Data Entry clerk do?

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

Data entry duties and responsibilities  are the most important part of the Data entry clerk  job description. These are  


  • Review, check and process invoices for payout 


  • Index invoices and file them in the appropriate places 


  • Identify unpaid invoices and notify the appropriate parties 


  • Disperse and monitor petty cash resources 


  • Evaluate and process expense reports from employees and executives 


  • Prepare checks for disbursement 


  • Maintain accurate and thorough vendor records 


  • Evaluate and approve POs 


  • Establish positive rapport with employees and vendors 


  • Fill in on AR side when needed 


 How can you become a Data Entry Clerk? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career 

In order to become a Data entry clerk, you have to have certain Data entry skills and qualifications. 

This may include education, previous job experience, certifications and technical and soft skills. You may also require certain personality traits to qualify for this job. Here are a few qualifications and skills that you may require. 

  • At least 3 years data entry experience  


  • High school diploma or Bachelor’s degree in accounting or finance 


  • 10-key (Numpad) speed of at least 8,000 KPH with minimal errors 


  • Ability to maintain confidentiality in financial matters 


  • Excellent Bookkeeping and organizational skills 


  • Comfortable with accepting and applying constructive criticism 


  • Advanced mathematical skills 


  • Strong computer skills 


  • Comfortable with office equipment like computers, scanners, calculator, telephone and photocopiers. 


  • Analytical thinking 


  • Strong attention to details. 


What courses are best for Data entry clerk 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career


Although data entry clerk positions do not require specific certifications, professionals can gain skills by enrolling in a Data entry certificate program at a technical school or college. 


Here are few of the courses related to Data entry which are also online. 


  • Data Entry Course for Beginners by Udemy 


  • Learn Data entry & launch a successful home-based business by Udemy 


  • R Programming – A Practical Approach by IIT Kanpur 


  • Excel for Everyone: Core Foundations 


  • Certificate Program in HR Analytics by Manipal Pro learn 


  • Microsoft Excel – Basic & Advanced 


  • Capstone: Analyzing (Social) Network Data by Coursera 


  • UI Design Patterns for Successful Software by Interaction Design Foundation 


  • Excel for Everyone: Core Foundations by  edx 


  • Microsoft Excel – Basic & Advanced by Go skills 


  • Domestic Data Entry Operator- Hindi by Skills India  


Scope of Data entry clerk 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

Data entry in India is a fast-growing industry. It is a preferred destination for IT and IT related business. 

Since India is an IT hub of the world and a preferred destination for IT and IT related business, there is a tremendous scope for Data entry clerks in India. Data plays a fundamental role in the IT sector and is a critical area that demands expertise of a Data entry clerk. Skilled data entry processes can streamline your business and help it move more seamlessly, saving time, money and giving you a competitive edge in the market. 

Data entry in India encompasses a broad range of services like basic data entry, data processing, data conversion, database entry, image entry, data entry online, based on survey, company reports, insurance claims etc. 

There are different data entry scenarios: 


  • Creation of data representation through manual data entry procedures 


  • Changing pattern of data from existing representatives 


  •  Identification of specific patterns of online data and extraction through automated processes 


  • Intelligent data entry – An approach towards the goal of understanding human thinking.  


  • Data entry online. 

What are the Benefits of Data Entry? 

The benefits of Data entry are given below: 


  • Data entry helps in the process of research & analysis 


  • Data entry helps in generating information from across the web 


  • Conversion of raw data into digital data is done through data entry. This digital data can be processes in various industrial sectors 


  • It helps in electronic word processing. 


  • Online data entry can be made use of in some cases for data retrieval. 


  • Data entry Facilitates data migration. A company can upgrade or make relevant changes to the data.


Where can you find jobs for Data entry clerks? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career


If you have great keyboarding skills and other qualifications as stated above data entry may be a solid career for you to consider. Data entry clerk jobs can take you into variety of industries as employers across many sectors hire for these positions. 

Industries that hire Data entry clerks 

  • Medical and Health

The employers include hospitals, medical centers and diagnostic labs and clinics. 

  • Administrative 

Data entry clerks can work in office Settings. They can also required to do other office jobs like answering phones or performing receptionist duties. 

  • Accounting and Finance 

Financial institutions also hire data entry clerks that deal with tax preparation, auditing, corporate finances, payroll and accounts payable. 

  • Government and Politics 

Local and state governments as well as the central government hire data entry clerks for public record keeping for elections.

  • Retail and Sales 

Inventory, online sales, collection and logistics all ply a major role in retail and sales. The employers in these industries hire for data entry jobs. 


Data entry jobs Websites

In case you are looking for a career as a Data entry clerk, here is the collection of data entry jobs sites where you can work and earn. Here is the best online job for Data entry for 2022: 

  • Mega Typers 

Mega Typers offers data entry services to private and governmental institutions. This website provides services such as Image-to-text recognition, transcription from voice to text and data entry.  

This website is most suitable for students, people in between jobs and parents that need supplementary income. You can earn around USD 250 per month and receive through Debit cards, PayPal Web Money, Ayza, and Western Union. 

  • Scribie 

Scribie offers translation, transcription and data entry services to businesses at affordable prices. If you are really interested in becoming a data entry professional, this transcription and data entry site is the right one. 

You can earn a decent amount of money here. But you must be fluent in English language.  

Your job responsibilities include audio files into text, verifying the transcript matches the audio, correctly identifying each speaker in the transcript and label them and correct spelling, punctuation, grammatical mistakes in the transcript.

  • Lion Bridge 

Lion bridge connects the experts from their respective fields with the brands and companies. To find jobs on Lionbridge you need to create your free account. You can browse data entry jobs, data annotation jobs, online translation jobs and many more. 

The website offers you flexible working hours, steady income, and jobs in over 300 languages from around the world. 

  • MTurk 

Amazon Mechanical Turk or MTurk is a crowdsourcing platform of Amazon and one of the top legit online data entry jobs’ sites. It is an internationally trusted brand that guarantees payment on time. It makes it easier for individuals and businesses to outsource their processes and connect through virtual jobs. 

You can find various online jobs such as data entry jobs, data processing and analysis jobs that you can complete from your home. 

  • Transcribe Me 

Transcribe Me is a platform that connects businesses with employees and vice-versa. If you are interested in online jobs such as data entry, data transcription, and data translation jobs Transcribe Me is a a right kind of place.

  • REV 

Rev is one of the top 10 data entry jobs sites that bridge the gap between skilled freelancers and customers. 

Rev is widely acclaimed by brands such as Forbes and The New York Times. It offers people freedom to work from home. You can work on schedule and get paid weekly. 

You can join as a freelancer and find hundreds of jobs in data entry, transcription, foreign subtitles and live captions for zoom. 

  • Fiverr 

Fiverr is yet another top 10 online data entry jobs sites for freelancers.

You have to create a freelancer account with your details. You need to regularly update your details so the employers and businesses can approach you for the work of data entry, and transcription jobs. 

  • Upwork 

In Upwork you can browse from more than 5838 remote data entry jobs sites. You need to create your free account and apply as a freelancer. 

Once you have created your profile, you can browse and apply from a pool of jobs available on the platform. 

  • is one of the top 10 data entry job sites in India with more than 15,170 data entry job openings. You can directly search your job through a keyword. 

You can check job details such a s your roles and responsibilities. You can check the company’s details, position, experience, location and skills required. 

  • Indeed 

Indeed is one of the best online data entry jobs websites with over 250 million per month visitors. This website is widely acclaimed by top recruiters worldwide. You can search for jobs using keywords and the location. 

  • Freelancer 

Freelancer is a platform that connects freelancers with businesses. You can find several online data entry jobs on freelancer within minutes using keywords. 

You can use advanced filters such as skills, languages to find your preferred jobs in just few clicks. 

  • Click worker 

Click worker is regarded as one of the best independent contractors’ platforms offering a wide range of services. 

Click worker also offers data entry services and provides data entry jobs to interested applicants. Thus, you can do data entry jobs along with other related jobs such as copy editing, proofreading and so on. 

What is the average salary of a Data entry clerk? 

In India the average  data entry clerk salary in India  is Rs 180,000 per year or Rs 92.31 per hour. At the entry level you can earn Rs 156,000 per year which can later increase to Rs 289,8000 per year as you gain experience. 

Here is the list of salary structures for data entry clerks based on sampling. 


Job Title  Salary 
Online Data Entry Job Data Entry salaries – 99 salaries reported  ₹17,500/mo. 
Fresher Data Entry salaries – 70 salaries reported  ₹15,552/mo. 
Freelancer Data Entry salaries – 56 salaries reported  ₹118/hr. 


What is the future for Data entry Clerks? 

Data entry clerk 2022- Your entry into a Dynamic Career

As the economy continues to grow the demand for data entry clerks and other professionals will continue to rise. Data entry jobs can be found everywhere in part-time, freelance, temporary, and full-time roles across various fields.

Automation and Manual data entry has to coexist. Automation is spawning data entry and causing major technological disruption in this domain. According to a report published by Garner, the AI-derived value would reach 3.9 trillion dollars by 2022. 






Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

In the last article, I discussed with you how to start your Career in Meteorology which is a part of earth science. Today I am going to write about another part of earth science – Geology. Here I will discuss what is Geology and how you can start your career as Geologists.

What is Geology?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geology is the study of the earth in a scientific way where we study the Earth’s materials, what it is made of, and the processes that affect them over time. It includes the study of organisms on our planet. The main purpose of Geology is the find and understand the reasons for situations like climatic change to predict it better. It also includes the study of natural processes such as floods, volcanic eruptions, landslides, earthquakes.

Geology is a multidisciplinary science that uses principles of Physics, Chemistry, biology, and Mathematics to study the earth. The geology consists of sub-disciplines such as geoinformatics, mineralogy, volcanology, geomorphology, crystallography, gemology, oceanography, geophysics, geochemistry, and economic geology.

Today Geology has an international appeal as more and more students are interested in opting for this course. There are many educational institutions and universities that offer diplomas, degrees as well as online geology courses.

Types of Geology

There are two main types of Geology.

  • Physical Geology

Physical Geology deals with the study of the earth and the processes acting on them. This includes volcanoes, earthquakes, rocks, mountains, and the oceans and the processes acting on them.

  • Historical Geology

In Historical Geology, we study the history of the earth. It focuses on what happened to earth since its formation. Geologists also study the changes in life throughout time. In historical geology, one can travel back in time to the formation of the earth and move forward through time, witnessing the changes in earth itself and the life on it.

Who are the Geologists?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

A geologist is a scientist who studies the Earth, its material, and its evolution. They also study the organism inhabiting the earth. Geologists apply the working knowledge of various subjects of science such as physics, chemistry, maths, and biology for explaining the different phenomenon.  A Geologist locates the natural deposits of minerals underground, creates geology reports, maps, and interprets the researched data to the next level.

What do Geologists do?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geologists work to help us understand the history of our planet. This helps them foresee the events and processes of the past that might influence the future.

Geologists study earth processes such as landslides, earthquakes, floods, and volcanic eruptions that are catastrophic and can take thousands of lives. A geologist can help builders to build buildings and structures like Dams, Bridges in places where there is the least chance of them being damaged. They can help us to avoid building residential places by preparing maps that of areas that might be flooded in the future.

We use Earth materials like oil, metals, and water every day in our life. Geologists conduct studies that locate rocks that contain important metals, plan and construct the mines that produce them, and devise methods to remove them from rocks. Similarly, they work to locate and produce oil, natural gas, and groundwater.

Geologists work to learn about the past climates of Earth and how they have changed over time. The historical geological information helps us understand the status of our climate, how it is changing, and predict its effect in the future.

Geologists conduct surveys, construct maps, measure the earth’s gravity and magnetic field.

History of Geology

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology.

  • It was in the 4th century BC, the Greek Scientist Aristotle made critical observations of the slow rate of geological change which cannot be observed during one person’s lifetime.
  • Aristotle’s successor Theophrastus made the greatest progress in his work on stones. He was able to describe many minerals and ores both from the local mines such as those in Laurium near Athens and further afield.
  • Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1048 AD) was one of the earliest Indian Muslim geologists who claimed in his writings that the Indian subcontinent was once a sea.
  • Ibn Sina (981-1037 AD) is a Persian polymath who made important contributions to geology, and natural science.
  • It was not until the 17th century that Geology made great strides in its development.
  • The Scottish Naturalist James Hutton(1726-1797) is known as the Father of Geology. He formulated geological principles based on the observation of rocks.
  • A New Theory of the Earth was published in 1696 by William Whiston where he tried to reason that the Great Flood had occurred and it formed the rock strata of the earth.
  • The Industrial Revolution and the development of the mining industry and stimulated the rapid development of the stratigraphic column stating that the sequence of rock formations arranged according to their order of formation in time.
  • The early 20th century saw the discovery of Radio Isotopes and the development of Radiometric dating. In 1911 Arthur Holmes used radioactive decay to measure geological time to date a sample from Ceylon at 1.6 billion years old using lead isotopes.
  • In 1912 Alfred Wegner proposed the theory of Continental drift which suggested that all continents were once a giant landmass known as Pangaea which later was separated and drifted apart to form continents in their present shape. The theory also offered a possible formation of mountains. He propounded The Theory of Tectonic Plates which is based on the idea that Earth is broken into tectonic plates and these plates move in response to seafloor spreading.
  • Some of the famous geologists of India are Darashaw Nosherwan(1883-1969), Khadg Singh Valdiya, Birbal Sahani(1891-1949), Rabi Naryan Naryan Bastia, Dasika Durga Prasada Rao, and Pramatha Nath Bose(1855-1934).
  • A more integrative approach in the late 20th century saw the study of geology using considering the earth in a broader context encompassing the atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. Satellites today can take wide-scope photographs of the earth.
  • In 1972 the Landsat Program a series of satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the US Geological Survey began supplying satellite images of earth that can be geologically analyzed. The program helped to produce geologically detailed maps, locate sources of natural energy and predict natural disasters by plate shifts. 


How can you become a Geologist?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Geology is one of the core STEM subjects and a minimum bachelor’s degree is required for one to become a Geologist. The course is perfect for anyone who is interested in working on projects related to earth. This also includes exploration of minerals, protection of the environment, exploration of oil, managing resources, and many more.

A job as a Geologist at the entry-level varies depending on the type of employer but here are the general Skills, duties, and responsibilities for you to become a Geologist.

  • BSc in Geology or related field
  • Must have the ability to work or have experience in various industries such as mining, environment assessment, land development, and land redemption.
  • Ability to work outdoors in the field in different environmental conditions as well as in the office to complete reports and paperwork.
  • Ready to travel extensively for projects.
  • Knowledge of geology and geological factors for the location of the worksite.
  • Ability to work in a team and share geological data within the team.
  • Excellent verbal communication to interact with the management and team.
  • Ability to collect and analyze geological information, like water, soil, or rock.
  • Ability to write detailed reports accurately.
  • Must be highly technical to design mappings or graphical representations of information collected.
  • Must comply with all safety codes and standards.
  • Must be able to use specialized databases and software to complete work tasks.
  • He must be able to understand and abide by all center, state, or local laws and codes related to geological work.


At the managerial position, you will require the following skills and duties as a Geologist or senior Geologist. It may also include the following tasks that may require years of experience:

  • A Master’s degree or Ph.D. in geology and experience in the field of work.
  • Must be able to study the relationship between work projects and environmental impact and sustainability.
  • Must be well acquainted with the methods for geological analysis and data collection that provide the least environmental impact.
  • Must be able to manage sampling and reports from entry-level geologists and provide necessary feedback and recommendations
  • Must ensure work is conducted on time and project deadlines are being met
  • Must be able to present data using a variety of media to share results of investigations with stakeholders, clients, governments, or management
  • Must be able to update skills regularly to learn new and improved methods of geological work by attending workshops and courses
  • Must be able to manage and oversee contractors, such as drillers and excavators; Must be able to ensure health and safety compliance for workers
  • He must be able to manage budgets for geological projects and order materials required
  • He must attend meetings regularly with management to provide insight into work projects and receive pertinent information
  • Must be able to provide ongoing training to staff regarding investigations and data interpretation


Geology Courses abroad

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The best countries to study Geology are

  • The U.S.A.
  • Lebanon
  • Finland


Few of the international acclaimed colleges and universities that offer specialization in Geology are:

1. South New Hampshire University


Snhu offers an online program in BS in Environmental Science and MBA in Sustainability& Environmental Compliance


2. Arizona State University


ASU offers online courses like BS in Sustainability Programs.


3. University of Phoenix

 The programs it offers are BS in Environmental Science and BS in Business with a concentration in Environmental Sustainability.


 4. John Hopkins Krieger Schools of Arts & Science

The University offers Graduate Programs in Environmental Science, Energy Policy and Climate, and GIS. 


Geology Courses in India

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

In India, many universities and colleges offer undergraduate, Postgraduate, and Doctorate degrees in Geology. One can pursue the given courses to make his career as Geologist.

  • Undergraduate Courses

Here are the UG courses:

  • Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) in Geology, Earth science, and Environmental science
  • Bachelor of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Bachelor of Arts (B.A) in Geology, Earth Science and Environmental Science 
  • Postgraduate Courses

It is a two-year duration course.

  • Master of Science (M.Sc) in Geology and  Applied Geology
  • Master of Science (Hons.) in Geology
  • Master of Technology in Geology and Applied Geology  
  • Doctoral Courses

Ph.D. in Geology

   Specializations in Geology

  • Economic Geology
  • Geochemistry
  • Marine Geology
  • Engineering geology
  • Structural geology
  • Volcanology
  • Mineralogy
  • Geomorphology

What are the Best colleges to study Geology in India?

Here are a few of the Best colleges in India for you to pursue your specialization in Geology.

Here are the courses offered by institutions for anyone aspiring to become a geologist.

For Graduation
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Kharagpur
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Dhanbad
  • Hans Raj College – [HRC], New Delhi
  • Annamalai University, Chidambaram
  • St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai
  • Aligarh Muslim University – [AMU], Aligarh
  • Fergusson College, Pune
  • Presidency College, Chennai
  • Jadavpur University, Kolkata
  • Bihar National College, Patna 
For Post Graduation
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Kharagpur
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Roorkee
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Mumbai
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Dhanbad
  • Indian Institute of Technology – [IIT], Bhubaneswar
  • Hans Raj College – [HRC], New Delhi
  • Anna University, Chennai
  • Annamalai University, Chidambaram
  • St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai
  • Banaras Hindu University – [BHU], Varanasi


What is the Best Entrance exam for Geology in India?

Here are the entrance exams that you have to clear to get yourself a degree in Geology.

For Graduation
  • Joint Entrance Examination Main-JEE MAIN
  • Joint Entrance Examination Advanced-JEE ADVANCED
  • Common Entrance Test -CET
For Post Graduation
  • Graduate Aptitude Test of Engineering-GATE
  • Osmania University Common Entrance Test-OUCET
  • Sri Venkateswara University Common Entrance Test-SVUCET
  • Indian School of Mines Entrance Exam-ISM EE
  • Banaras Hindu Postgraduate Entrance Examination-BHU PET


Course Fees and Duration

The average cost for any course in Geology ranges between Rs10,000 to Rs 2 lacs. The cost varies from one college to another.

Course Duration Fees(annual)
Diploma in Geology 1 year Differs with the institution you are opting to pursue the course
Bachelor’s degree in Geology(B.Sc) 3 years Rs 10,000- 1 lakh
Master’s degree in Geology(M.Sc.) 2 years Rs 30,000- 1 lakh
Doctorate in Geology (Ph.D) 3 years Rs 1 lakh- 2 lakh


The Scope in Geology

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

Most geologists work in Industry. They work in engineering and consulting firms, government agencies, mining companies, groundwater agencies, petroleum companies, museums, etc. Others work in higher education such as universities as lecturers, or in research in university labs and departments.

Where do Geologists work?

Here are some of the many occupations where a geology degree is beneficial.

  • Astrogeologists or planetary geologists
  • Engineering geologists
  • Environmental consultant
  • Environmental geologists
  • Geochemist
  • Geological surveyor
  • Geology professor
  • Geomorphologist
  • Geophysicist
  • Gemologist
  • Glacial geologist
  • High school science teacher
  • Hydrogeologist
  • Mineralogist


In India, the following is the list of organizations both national and international where geologists are employed:

  • Geologists Survey of India(GSI)
  • Central Ground Water Board(CGWB)
  • Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)
  • Directorate of Geology and Mining (DGM)
  • Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM)
  • Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)
  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
  • National Geophysical Institute (NGRI)
  • Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun
  • Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC)
  • Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC)
  • National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC)
  • National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC)
  • Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation (MMTC)
  • National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA)
  • State Mining Corporation (SMC)
  • Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO)
  • National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC)
  • Hindustan Zinc Limited
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
  • Tehri Hydro Development Corporation (THDC)
  • Mineral Exploration Authority Private sector companies
  • Hindustan Copper Limited
  • Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL)
  • National Minerals Development Corporation
  • Steel Authority of India Limited.
  • Kudremukh Iron ore company


What is Geologists’s average salary?

The pay scale of Geologists depends on where he opts to work. Since there is a shortage of jobs in geology there has been a dramatic rise in the salary in the last few years.

The Median salary in the US for geologists was $93,580 in May 2020. The highest payer is the oil and gas industry with a median salary of $125,670 followed by the federal government with a median salary of $104,210.

In India, the starting salary of the Geologists ranges between Rs 2.5 lacs to Rs 3.5 lacs per annum in both the private and public sectors. In the government, the geologists can earn a salary package of approx. Rs 9.5 lacs.


Are Geologists in Demand in the Future?

Geologists 2021- Welcome to an exciting and rewarding career

The field of geology and related sciences is expected to grow at a phenomenal rate in the next few years. So in case you are interested in becoming a geologist you are looking forward to a solid career.

The demand for Geologists in the US is expected to grow to 11,400 over the next 10 years.

Despite the downturn in the mineral resources sector, there is a positive outlook for geologists in long term. In fact, the demand for geologists exceeds the supply. The demand in the field is cyclical and mirrors the price of geological commodities such as fuels, metals, and construction materials.






Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Most of us would consider a Meteorologist as a person that studies Meteors falling from the sky. However, this is not so. Meteorology is defined as  the study of Earth’s atmosphere 

For centuries we have studied the effect of the atmosphere and collected the data for various purposes like in agriculture, military defense, and planning, and to develop early warning systems to reduce its adverse impact on coastal areas due to tornadoes and cyclones.

We must have sufficient interests and educational standards to make a career in Meteorology. All this will be discussed in this article

Meteorology and Meteorologist

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

There are five branches of Earth Science. These are ;

  • Geology
  • Meteorology
  • Climatology
  • Oceanography
  • Environmental Science 

Meteorology is defined as a branch of Earth Science that deals with the study of Earth’s atmosphere. It mainly focuses on weather processes and forecasting. Meteorology includes the study of both weather and climate that are concerned with the physical, dynamical, and chemical state of the earth’s atmosphere and interactions and Earth’s space. 

Meteorologists are the scientists who study Meteorology. The American Meteorological Society defines a Meteorologist as an Individual with specialized education who uses scientific principles to explain, understand, observe and forecast the earth’s atmospheric phenomena and/or how the atmosphere affects the earth and life on the planet. Meteorologist 

Meteorologists use various Meteorological instruments to study the earth’s atmosphere like satellites, weather balloons, radar, sensors, and weather stations.

Difference between Meteorology  and  Climatology

Whereas Meteorologist is concerned with the current state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, Climatologist studies climate that is concerned for the long-term weather conditions and trends for the given locations.

Climatology can be looked at as the historical record of weather conditions for a location while meteorology gives the current daily news stories of the weather for that same location. To put it more simply, Climatology is like reading a history book and meteorology is more like reading a news article.

 The History of Meteorology

The ability to predict annual cycles of rains and floods has been used by humans since the start of the agriculture settlement.

The origin of the word Meteorology is derived from the ancient Greek word Meteoron which means something that happens high in the sky. The ancient Greeks observed and tried to understand the connection between clouds, winds, and rains.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote a book called Meteologica as early as 340 B.C.E. which provided all the information on weather and climate. Aristotle is regarded as the founder of Meteorology.

In India, the Upanishads mention clouds and rain. In the Samveda there is a mention of sacrifices to be performed to please Gods if there is no rain. In his classic book Brihat Samhita,  Varahamihira provides evidence of weather observation. The book was written in 500 AD.

From 1801 to 1841,  Luke Howard did comprehensive recordings of weather forecasts in London and his writing transformed the science of Meteorology. He is regarded as the Father of Meteorology.

How to Become a Meteorologist?

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Meteorology is a difficult subject and being a Meteorologist is a difficult job. You must be strong in maths, science, and computer.

What Skills are needed to become a Meteorologist?

 Here are a few of the basic skills that you require to become a Meteorologist.

  • Good communication skills.
  • Strong Analytical Skills
  • Practical details
  • Ability to work in details
  • Computer skills
  • Strong Interpretative skills
  • Accuracy
  • Patience
  • Power of Observation

Education Profile of a Meteorologist

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

You must have a Meteorology degree if you want to become a Meteorologist.

You must pass your higher secondary in science with a good percentage. Then you must complete your graduation ( BSc or B.Tech) in Meteorology. In case you are a Science graduate in another stream but want to get a degree in Meteorology they can join a two years Master’s degree program in Meteorology which is for two years.

Students who are interested in doing research and development in Meteorology can complete their Ph.D. degree in Meteorology after their Master’s degree..

Here are the subjects in which you should graduate other than meteorology and go for Post Graduation:

  • Physics
  • Maths
  • Environmental Studies
  • Geography
  • Computer Science

Branches of Meteorologist

  • Atmospheric Chemistry
  • Atmospheric Physics
  • Numerical weather prediction and modeling
  • Tropical and oceanographic meteorology
  • Aviation
  • Hazards

How much does a Meteorology degree cost in India?

The meteorology course fees vary upon a number of factors like the University and the purpose of the course.

 The BSc course which takes three years to be completed will cost you Rs 27,000 in a government college. But the same course may cost you between Rs 80,000 to Rs 1.5 lacs per year in a private university.

In case you want to do a B.Tech course which is a four years course, you will have to pay Rs 10 lacs to Rs 15 lacs for the course.

To pursue a Ph.D. in Meteorology which is a two years program, the cost of the course varies between Rs 80,000 to Rs 300,000. 

Where can you study Meteorology?

Here are a few of the Best meteorology schools/ colleges in the world where you can get your degree in Meteorology:

  • Princeton University
  • Columbia University
  • Harvard University
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Yale University
  • Stanford University
  • University of Chicago
  • University of Pennsylvania

Top colleges of Meteorology in India

In India, there are only a few colleges and universities that offer a course in Meteorology. Most of the colleges are regulated by the government as the students can get jobs in the government and public sector only. Here are a few of the colleges and universities in India offering a course in Meteorology.  


College Rank Name of the College/University Course Type Course Fees per annum
1 Andhra University MSc 1.5 lacs
2 Cochin University of Science and Technology M.Tech 1.6lakhs
3 IIT, Delhi

IIT, Kharagpur

M.Tech 1.6 lacs
4 Savitri Phule University M.Tech


1.7 lacs 

1 lacs

5 Orissa Institute of Agriculture and Technology M.Tech 1.7 lacs
6 Shivaji University B.Sc 2 lacs
7 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology(IITM), Pune M.Tech 1.7 lacs


The Scope of Meteorology

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Few people opt for a career in Meteorology as it is a rare field of science. However, a career in Meteorology has its own charm and is highly rewarding.

As a Meteorologist, you will find yourself working on air transportation, Global Warming, Pollution control, Ozone depletion, droughts, forestry, agriculture, and more. The introduction of powerful computers and supercomputers which help him run complex weather simulations and predict the weather.

Meteorologists have a high demand in the government sector. But some private companies also recruit them, especially for environmental control. In the Government sector, they are recruited in different organizations like space research and development, Defence research and development, weather forecasting, and mining departments.

Since the Meteorologist’s job Description and responsibilities are diverse the profession can be divided into four main categories. These categories are

  • Industrial Meteorologist
  • Physical Meteorologist
  • Research Meteorologist
  • Meteorologist Professor and Teacher

Industrial and Physical  Meteorologists perform their jobs flexibly. The professionals have to perform their duties both indoor and outdoor. They have to work for long hour durations as they have to collect data on weather forecasts. In fact, most of the meteorological departments are 24 hours functional and the meteorologist has to work under high pressure which makes their job even more challenging.

Here are a few of the government institutes/organizations in India where meteorologists are recruited.

  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorologists.
  • India Meteorology Department
  • Indian Air Force
  • Space Application Center
  • National Remote Sensing Agency
  • Defense Research and Development Organization
  • Indian Space Research Organization

Various Career Paths for  Meteorologist

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Here are a few of the career fields for Meteorologists. 

   1. Weather Forecasting and Warning

Weather Forecasting has been the core aspect of Meteorology and has attracted a lot of young talent in this profession. Weather forecasting involves people from different countries because the system that brings us our weather is hundreds of miles in extent and moves over huge regions of the earth’s surface as they grow and change. The weather forecast that we see on our television is the end product of the worldwide effort by thousand of meteorologists in the national weather service of many nations.   

  2. Atmospheric Research

  Atmospheric research is done to seek answers to questions about our   

           understanding of the atmosphere, it’s working, and its impact on us

           For example, the threat of global warming is assessed by meteorologists who 

           collect data and analyze them on worldwide temperature trends. Similarly 

           Research Meteorologists work with Biologists to study how plants and 

           animals interact with our atmosphere. 


     3. Meteorological Technology Development and support

Various companies design, manufacture and market the instrumentation to measure the data for the atmosphere. These instruments range from simple rain gauges to computerized self-contained automated weather observing stations. These companies also design and build weather satellites and Doppler radars.

      4. Information Services

Information services are services given to many non-meteorological customers who need tailored products and information to meet their needs. These information services include acquiring raw meteorological data pertinent to individual customers, creating easily understood displays of critical weather information,, and preparing forecast model output in a format that a layman can easily understand. Meteorologists in this area also help planners and contractors to locate and design airports, factories, and many other construction projects. They also provide climatological information for heating and air-conditioning engineers.

        5. Forensic Services

           Sometimes weather conditions have an impact on legal cases. Forensic 

           meteorologists are often required to reconstruct weather conditions that were 

           occurring at the time of the event. Sometimes forensic meteorologists are 

           called to testify as expert witnesses in court cases in case it involves the 

           weather. The forensic meteorologist will retrieve and analyze weather 

           information and reconstruct the weather conditions for the location in 


         6.  Broadcast Meteorology

           Media Weather forecasting for radio, television, and newspapers is a high-profile career. It is the responsibility of Broadcast Meteorologists for gathering 

          data, create a forecast, and then develop the graphical representation of 

          their weather analysis for television. Occasionally broadcast meteorologists 

          are often asked to act as environmental reporters, generating stories on a 

          variety of earth topics.

          7. Teaching

Since there is growing awareness of meteorology today there is an increasing demand for lecturers and professors at the university level. Many university atmospheric scientists direct research that graduate students are performing to earn their degrees. You must have good preparation and training in Meteorology for a career as a science teacher at any level.

        8. Aviation Meteorology

            Aviation Meteorology studies the impact of weather on air traffic  

            management. The aviation meteorologist helps and guides the flight crew in 

           understanding the implication of then weather on their flight plan and make 

           decision accordingly.

           9. Agricultural Meteorology.

              Agriculture Meteorologist helps oil scientists, agricultural hydrologists and 

             agronomists in understanding the effects of weather and climate on plant 


           10. Hydro-meteorologist

               Hydro-Meteorologist studies the hydro-logic cycle, the water budget, and 

           rain statistics of storms. He prepares and issues forecasts of accumulating   

            precipitation, heavy rain, heavy snow, and areas with the potential for flash 


            11. Nuclear Meteorology

                Nuclear Meteorology investigates the effect of nuclear arsenal and gases in 

             the  Atmosphere.

            12. Maritime Meteorology

               Maritime meteorologists study the effect of weather on the sea and issue air 

            and wave forecasts for ships operating in the sea. 

Salary of Meteorologist

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, there is tremendous scope for Meteorology. The growth rate in this field is predicted to be 12% from 2016 to 2026 which is faster than the average for all occupations. The Meteorology jobs in the USA in 2021 come with a high median salary between 77,877 USD and 125,172 USD per annum.

Meteorologist Salary in India

The Indian Government offers Meteorologist scientists a lucrative salary that varies between Rs 10,000 to Rs 25,000 per month.

The Entry-level Meteorologist salary in India is Rs 25,000 to Rs 30,000 per month if you are working in Agriculture research and development center. The Meteorologist professional with added expertise and experience can get a salary up to Rs 60000 to 150,000 per month in a defense research and development center.

In the Space research and development center sector, most senior Meteorologists are offered a salary of up to Rs 250,000 per month.  

Here is the table that shows the salary of a Meteorologist according to their seniority level in different organizations in India.


Organisation Salary of Junior Scientists Salary of Executive Scientists Salary of Senior Scientists
Meteorological Research Centre 40,000 rupees/month 50,000-70,000 rupees/month 80,000-100,000 rupees/month
Agricultural Planning  Divisions 25,000-35,000 rupees/month 45,000 rupees/month 65000 rupees/month
Weather Consulting Organisations 35,000-55,000 rupees/month 60,000-70,000 rupees/month 80,000-1.5 lakh rupees/month
Air Force 45,000-60,000 rupees/month 65,000 rupees/month 100000 rupees/month


The Future Growth Prospects of Meteorology

Meteorologist 2021-Welcome to a Dynamic and Blistering Career

Since now both the Government and private organizations are recruiting Meteorologists there is tremendous scope for these scientists. They are hired in DRDO, ISRO, and  NABARD. They are hired by private recruiters like Reliance, Mahindra, and TATA. As more and more private companies are coming to this sector there is an increase in the demand for professionally qualified Meteorologists in India. However, to achieve faster growth in their professional career, Meteorologists have to attain higher education to enhance their professional capabilities.


Chemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Career

For all the students who want to choose Chemists as their career path, Chemistry is fundamental to them. We all are essentially chemists as everything around us has a chemical context. When we breathe, we light a match or boil milk we perform a chemical reaction. Our body is home to a number of chemical processes taking place inside it.

What is Chemistry?


Chemistry along with Physics, Biology, and Maths is known as  Central Science.It is the study of the nature of chemical processes and chemicals within the realm of biological and physical phenomenon. Chemistry helps us understand the universe we live in and its composition.

Here are a few branches of chemistry that can specialize:

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • BioChemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Forensic Chemistry
  • Applied Chemistry

Who are the Chemists?

Chemists 2021- A Guide to an ImpactChemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Careerful and exciting Career

Why do our chocolate, Jam or Butter taste so delicious? The chemist makes them like that. The food preservatives that help these foods to last for more than a year are created by chemists. The deodorants and scents that we are using are created by chemists.

The medicines we eat have chemistry in it created by chemists.

Thus the Chemists transform ordinary stuff into extraordinary.

What does a chemist do?

A Chemist is a person who works in applied research as well as basic research. A chemist is a scientist researching chemical substances, performing experiments on chemical substances, measuring their effect on different situations. They study inter-chemical reactions.

A chemist mostly works in a laboratory. He maintains and troubleshoots various equipment, instruments, and software tools utilized for chemical analysis and processing.

The chemists are responsible for interpreting and analyzing data and equipment logs from other laboratory members. I required the chemist must show an aptitude for experimental design. The chemists also collect and document quality assurance test data.

The chemists must also be able to follow directions exactly as well as suggest improvements to improve on experiments or processes.

Skills required to become Chemist

To become a chemist you require certain basic skills. These skills can be developed by you when you complete your degree course in chemistry. Here are a few of the skills that are required by chemists.

  • Scientific and Numerical skills
  • Curiosity
  • Attention to detail
  • Patience
  • Determination
  • Research and presentation skills
  • Analytical skills
  • Written and oral communication
  • Information Technology
  • Ability to maintain and monitor data/records
  • Teamwork
  • Organizational skills

How can you become  Chemists?

Chemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Career

To pursue a career in chemistry you must first take science in your 10+2.

After completing your higher secondary in science, you must take a bachelor’s degree in chemistry. The duration is of three years. In case you want to get a bachelor’s degree in engineering, you will have to study for four years. A bachelor’s degree provides you with solid background and information about chemistry and related fields.

In case you want to study further, you can take a Master’s degree in chemistry. The eligibility criteria to get a Master’s degree is that you have passed your bachelor’s in chemistry with s minimum percentage. The duration of the master’s program is for two years. A master’s degree can lead to excellent career prospects like analytical chemists, engineers, healthcare scientists, and toxicologists which are highly paid. Also, you will be prepared for leadership and management in the industry.

Here are a few of the options for those who have cleared their bachelor’s in chemistry and want to pursue their post-graduation in chemistry.

  • Masters in Chemical Engineering
  • Masters of Science in Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Analytical Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Drug Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • Masters of Science in Physical & Materials Chemistry
  • Doctorate/Ph.D. in Chemistry

Here are a few of the Top Colleges in India which are offering Bachelors’s and Master’s degrees in chemistry.

  • Xavier’s College
  • Stephan’s College
  • Presidency College
  • Jamia Hamdard University, Delhi
  • Loyola College, Chennai
  • Fergusson College, Pune
  • Hans Raj College, Delhi
  • Institute of Chemical Technology
  • Sri Venkateswara College, New Delhi

Here are a few of the top chemical engineering universities in India

  • Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IIT Delhi)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IIT Kanpur)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IIT KGP)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras)
  • Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IIT Roorkee)
  • Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS-Pilani)
  • Indian Institute of Technology – Banaras Hindu University (IIT-BHU
  • National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli
  • Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Guwahati)

A 3 year BSc degree from any of the above institutes in India will cost you between Rs60,000 to Rs500,000. A 4-year Engineering degree with a specialization in chemistry will cost Rs2,00,000 to Rs5,00,000.

In case you want to study abroad or go for your master’s degree, it will cost you around Rs15,00,000 to Rs 40,00,000 from any of the top universities.

Why become a Chemist? 

Chemists 2021- A Guide to an ImpactfChemists 2021- A Guide to an Impactful and exciting Careerul and exciting Career

Every graduate in chemistry, especially those with professional degrees would like to have a decent job in their hand after completing their graduation. There is a perception among the chemistry professionals that the top jobs are reserved for those with advanced degrees.

Chemistry graduates are high in demand and are successful from the early start in their careers. They have ample opportunities. The average growth rate of the Chemical Industry is about 6% in 2020 and is expected to continue at the same pace till 2030.

However, in India, there is not much awareness about a career in chemistry. Almost one-third of chemistry graduates work in a traditional lab. You can find a number of opportunities in petroleum companies working in their research laboratories. As a biochemist, you can widen your scope by availing conservation, environmental and medical opportunities.

Here are a few of the career paths that a chemistry professional can pursue.

Research & Development

  • Research and Product Development
  • Cheminformatics
  • Engineering and Technology
  • Crystallography
  • Pigments, Inks, and Dyes
  • Laboratory, Project and Industrial Management
  • Management
  • Project Management

Quality Control/Regulatory

  • Toxicology
  • Safety and Health
  • Toxic or Hazardous Waste Management
  • Quality Assurance or control


  • Information Management Specialist
  • Human Resources
  • Public Information
  • Support and Communication
  • Technical Communication


  • Technical Sales and Marketing


  • Process and Formulation Chemistry

Law and Policy

  • Law
  • Public Information
  • Regulation of Affairs
  • Policy
  • Social Impact

Military & Law Enforcement

  • Military Science & Technology
  • Forensic Science

Higher Education

  • Professional Staff
  • Basic Research
  • Cheminformatics
  • Professor
  • Information Management

Chemists Job Profiles

Here are a few of the job profiles for you after you pass out as a chemistry professional:

  1. Analytical Chemists

An Analytical chemist analyses the chemical composition of different substances such as food. Medicines and other products.

  1. Forensic Expert

The job of a Forensic expert is to collect, preserve and examine materials found at the crime scenes.

  1. Chemical informatics Data Scientists 

Chemical Informatics makes use of computer and information science techniques to store, index, and retrieve details about chemical compounds.

  1. Crystallographer

The job of the crystallographer is to study the molecular and atomic structure of crystals using different techniques like X-ray and microscopic imaging.

  1. Chemical Engineer

The job of the chemical engineer is to design the process of new products from other raw materials like the production of plastics, cosmetics, and raw materials.

  1. Industrial Management

The role of the Industrial manager is to handle projects and oversee production activities.

  1. Chemical health and safety professional  

These professionals advise companies on the best practices to ensure the safety of employees, property, and surroundings.

  1. Quality Assurance Officer

These chemists ensure that the product manufacturing and maintenance standards are of the company’s standards and free of errors.

  1. Regulatory Affairs Pharmacists

The role of regulatory affairs pharmacists is to regulate the guidelines on clinical trials and research.

  1. Toxicologists

Toxicologists are the chemists responsible for studying the effect of chemicals, drugs, and other agents on living organisms.

  1. Quality Controllers

Quality Controller evaluates the finished products and ensures that they meet the company’s standards.

  1.  Formulation Chemists

The formulation chemists know the art of mixing non-reactive materials to produce the desired product.

 13 Hazardous Waste Management chemists

These chemists are responsible for coming up with ways to reduce the pollutants and their harmful effects.

  1. Textile Chemists 

The Textile chemist makes use of his knowledge of chemistry to manufacture textiles like the clothes we wear.

  1. Pharmacologists

Pharmacologists study the effects of drugs on your body. They help in developing those drugs that are more efficient and safe for us.

  1. Professor

Teaching chemistry in colleges is a popular profession. A bachelor’s degree in chemistry or more can help you become a professor in chemistry.

  1. Technical Support Professional

A Technical support professional provides technical support and servicing of the lab instruments.

  1. . Process Chemistry

The process chemists identify the problems in scaling up the production of chemical products to a commercial level and also fix issues.

  1.  Laboratory Technician

Laboratory Technician supports the team in inventory, servicing lab equipment, and ensuring all standards and protocols are maintained in the laboratory.


The average salary of a chemist

At an entry-level i.e. with one year of experience, a chemist can earn about Rs 221,764 per annum in India. At his mid-career level with around 5-9 years of experience, a chemist can earn about Rs 350 000 lacs per annum. As an experienced chemist with 10-19 years of experience, you can be expected to earn Rs 5.5 lacs per annum and with above 20 years of experience, you can earn about Rs1,200,000 per annum. Lab Chemist salary in India ranges between ₹ 0.5 Lakhs to ₹ 6.0 Lakhs with an average annual salary of ₹ 2.5 Lakhs.

The average annual salary of a chemist in the USA is $83,850.

Your Employers as a chemist

The main employers of chemists   are in the chemical and related industries such as

  • Agrochemicals
  • Metallurgical
  • Petrochemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Plastics and Polymers
  • Toiletries

You can get employment in other sectors also notably in Food and Drink Industries, utility and research, Health and Medical organizations, the government, and scientific research organizations and agencies.


Despite the fact that the career in chemistry in India is little known there is an increasing demand for chemists due to the high industrial growth in the chemical and related industries. Chemical engineers and graduates are now highly in demand, especially in international companies.

If you are really interested in taking a career in chemistry and overlook the expenses in becoming one, you have the whole world at your door knocking for every opportunity you can get.


Chef Jobs 2021– Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Chef Jobs are the jobs meant for those working in Hotels and restaurants. We all love to dine outside in a restaurant. It is one of the better things in our life. We go with our friends, with our family or take our girlfriend on a date. In fact, restaurants are one of the favorite places outside for all of us.

But none of us have ever cared to know the men behind such a delicious meal. The gourmet’s delight. We come to the same restaurant again and again for the same food. We praise it while giving our feedback. Yet none of us have ever seen the man who cooked such a delicious meal for us.

These men are called the Chefs.

Who Are the Chefs?

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

All the activities related to the kitchen are handled by a professional culinarian known as the Chef. Chef Jobs includes managing the staff to deciding the weekly menu and preparing good quality food. It also includes hygiene in the kitchen.  

Chef Jobs 

Here are the roles and responsibilities of the chef in the kitchen.

  • Supervision

The chef is responsible for supervising staff during food preparation and presentation.He instructs and guides his staff.

  • Menu Planning

The menu planning is done by the chef to attract the customers. He instructs the staff on how to plan and prepare the menu. 

  • Managing the record

It is the responsibility of chefs to keep a record of all the ingredients required in the preparation of the food.

  • Managing Staff

The chefs are responsible for hiring and managing the staff. He delegates the task to the staff and sees that they implement his instructions properly.

  • Maintaining the quality of food

It is the responsibility of the chef to maintain good food quality. He has to check the quality of the ingredients used when the dish is being prepared. He has the authority to approve or reject a dish after checking its taste.

  • Hygiene in Kitchen

A chef monitors the sanitary practices in the kitchen and ensures that all the staff present in the kitchen fools them.

  • Budgeting

The chef coordinates the planning, budgeting, and or purchasing of all food items in the hotel or restaurants.

  • Food Presentation

The chef is responsible for how to present the food to the customers and create decorative displays.


   The Chefs are the King of the Kitchen. The whole reputation of a hotel, restaurant, or any eating joint big or small is dependent on the quality of Chef it has. 

Types of Culinary Arts

It is important for one to be aware of various types of culinary art in case he wants to pursue a career as a chef.

  • Commis Chef Jobs

Commis Chef is an assistant cook that helps the main chef to prepare food.

  • Chef de Partie Jobs

Chef de partie also called line chef or Station chef oversees a section of the kitchen with many chefs working under him in a particular area of production like pastry, butchery, vegetables, etc.

  • Pastry Chef Jobs

The Pastry Chef creates pastry, pies, and cakes. He decorates them and then presents deserts to the customers in an engaging manner.

  • Bakers Chef Jobs 

Bakers Chef are the chefs who have expertise in creating baked food.

  • Saucier or Saute Chef Jobs

Saucier or Saute Chef specializes in the process of procurement to delivery of Sauces. They also prepare soups and gravy for a particular dish.

  • Sous Chef Jobs

The Sous Chef is second in command directly working under the head chef. He is responsible for executing the planning as per instructions.

  • Chef de Cuisine Jobs or Head Chef Jobs

Chef de Cuisine is the master of the kitchen. He is also called the Head Chef. He plans the menu, chooses the ingredients, selects and inspects the cooking materials.

What is Culinary Art?

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Culinary art is the talent for cooking required in the chef job..A Culinary artist is the one who studies recipes and prepares high-quality dishes.

Culinary art includes baking, preparing food, supervising the kitchen, presentation of the food on the plate.

In case you have the talent and inclination for cooking, then Culinary Career is the right career option for you. This is an ideal profession for those who want to work in the food and beverage industry.

The one who masters the culinary art is known as the Culinarian, Culinary artist, or Chefs.

A few of the well-known professionals in the world of culinary art are Gordon James, Jamie Oliver, Wolfgang Puck, Sanjeev Kapoor, and Marco Pierre White.

A brief History of Culinary arts

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art
Boston Cooking School

The History of Culinary art might have begun about 2 million years ago when the first meal was cooked on the fire.

With the evolution of man the culinary techniques improved. The introduction of earthenware and stoneware, the domestication of livestock, and advancement in agriculture led to the advancement in culinary art techniques.

The chefs evolved into professional chefs from just being home-based chefs.

They were employed in the royal kitchen of kings and aristocrats. The wealthy employed them.

The end of the Monarchy in most parts of the world led to the employment of chefs in hotels and inns. Now the culinary art developed into a separate field of study.

The world’s first cooking institution was founded in 1879, in the United States, The Boston Cooking School. The standardization of cooking practices took place in this institution and laid the groundwork for the culinary art schools.

It was in 1929, that the American Culinary Federation was founded with the mission to educate students through apprenticeship and certifications. It became an assemblage of the United States Chef club. The second culinary school, Johnson & Wales University, opened its College of Culinary Arts in 1973.

The Cuisine from the Indian subcontinent consisted of cuisine that is rich and diverse. India’s diverse climate ranging from deep tropical to alpine also helped broaden the set of ingredients readily available to the many schools of culinary arts in the country..

Today we have different cuisine from all 29 states in India with their unique taste and flavor.. A few of the famous Indian cuisines are Kashmiri cuisine, Punjabi cuisine, Rajasthani cuisine, Bengali cuisine, Kerala cuisine, Maharashtrian cuisine, Goan cuisine, Hyderabadi cuisine, Gujarati cuisine, and many more.

How can you become a Chef?

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art


In order to pursue a career as chef you must possess or acquire certain specific skills. With training from reputed institutions in Hotel management and catering technology, a chef can exhibit the right skills in a successful manner and get successful placements in good hotels and restaurants.

Skills for becoming a chef

  • Physical Strength

A chef has to undergo a lot of physical stress as he has to stand in the kitchen for hours. He has to focus on cooking and work under pressure.

  • Dexterity

A chef has to show both physical and mental dexterity as there has to be a continuous movement both in his arms and fingers while doing his work as well as he has to think smoothly sometimes outside the box and must have a strong presence of mind.

  • Time Management

As a chef, you will be under constant pressure to deliver in a short time. You must be able to prepare, present and deliver dishes to your customers in a short span of time.

  • Leadership

You must be able to exhibit strong leadership and organizational skills while managing the staff working under you. A chef must be able to delegate responsibilities, give proper instruction and supervise his staff.

  • Teamwork

As a chef, you must be able to work in a team. You must be able to communicate and coordinate effectively with your teammates in the kitchen.

  • Patience and Resilience

A chef must exhibit both patience and resilience while preparing food, especially during rush hour.

Key skills required for Culinary Arts

  • Cooking and Baking arts
  • Garnishing
  • Knife skills
  • Food Carving
  • Plate Presentation
  • Food Photography
  • Restaurant Management

A Step by Step guide to becoming Chef

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Step 1:Complete your Post Secondary school (10+2) with a minimum of 50% in any stream.

Step 2:Get a Diploma or Degree in Culinary Arts.

  • You can get a Diploma in Culinary arts which may be from one and a half years to two and a half years.
  • You can get a BA in Culinary art for three to four years. In case you want to go further, you can go for a postgraduate degree in Culinary Arts.

Entrance Exams for Graduation in Culinary Arts

Here are a few of the best  entrance exams for culinary arts which you should take to become a chef: 

  1. Maharashtra Common Entrance Test-MH CET 2021·  
  2. Uttar Pradesh State Entrance Exam-UPSEE 2021
  3.  National Council for Hotel Management and Catering Technology Joint Entrance Examination-NCHMCT JEE 2021
  4. All India Management Association Under Graduate Aptitude Test-AIMA UGAT 2021
  6. Quantum University Entrance Test-Q Care 2021
  7. Vels Entrance Examination-VEE 2021·  
  8. Siksha O Anusandhan University Admission Test-SAAT 2021
  9. Electronic Common Hospitality Aptitude Test-IIHM ECHAT 2021
  10. Army Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology WAT-AIHMCT WAT 2021

Here are the courses in culinary arts. The eligibility criteria to take these courses vary from college to college:

Culinary art Courses Culinary arts tuition fees(INR)
Bachelor of Hotel Management and Catering Technology Rs 40,000 to 3 lacs
BA in culinary arts Rs 65,000 to 3 lacs
BSC in culinary arts Rs 10,000 to 3Lacs
Bachelor in catering technology & culinary arts Rs30,000 to Rs2,60,000
PGD in culinary arts Rs 60,000 to 3 lacs


 Step 3:Get practical exposure through Internship/Apprenticeship

  • You have to do an internship or work as an apprenticeship in a restaurant’s specialized department. This practical exposure will help you gain professional contacts and work with other colleagues. This will also sharpen your knowledge and skill.    

 Step 4: Get Certification as Chef

  •  Like any professional Education, you must get a certificate once you complete your formal education in culinary arts.

Best  Culinary Art Schools in India

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

Here are a few of the best colleges of culinary art  in India to pursue a career as Chef

For Graduation

  • IHM, Aurangabad
  • IHM Meerut
  • The Oberois
  • Culinary Academy of India(CAI), Hyderabad
  • Indian Institute of Catering Technology and Hotel Management(IIHMCA), Hyderabad
  • Allied Institute of Hotel Management and Culinary Arts(AIHMCA)
  • Goa College of Hospitality and Culinary Education, North Goa
  • Hotel and Catering Management Institute.
  • Welcome Graduate School of Hotel Management, Manipal University, Manipal
  • Chandigarh Institute of Hotel Management and Catering Technology, Chandigarh  

For Post Graduation

  •   Institute of Hotel Management Taj, Aurangabad
  •   Institute of Hotel Management – Ahmedabad
  •   Welcome Group Graduate School, Manipal
  •   ITC WelcomeLegionnaire Program 
  • Amrapali Institute of Hotel Management, Haldwani
  • Institute of Hotel Management, Catering & Nutrition – [IHM], Lucknow
  • University School of Hotel Management & Catering Technology, Rayat Bahra University – [USHMCT], Mohali
  • VELS University, Chennai
  •  Munnar Catering College – [MCC], Trivandrum

The Career of Chef in India

Chef Jobs 2021-- Your exciting Career in Culinary Art

With the high growth of the standard of living, greater personal disposable income and changing mindset of people in small-town and cities, more and more people are dining in Hotels and Restaurants. Also as people travel outside their home city the requirement of hotels for boarding and lodging as well as demand catering has seen a tremendous surge in India.

Profile of Restaurant Industry in India

As per the CRISIL rating agency, the Indian restaurant industry is estimated at Rs 4.2 lakh crore in both organized and unorganized sectors. There has been a surge of restaurants and hotels of International standard in 2&3 tier cities. Indians are more frequently going out for dining in these cities, approximately 1 to 3 times in a week.

The demand for trained chefs has increased due to the above factors and also people are more conscious of the quality of food and hygiene. Also, the growing popularity of Indian cuisine in the international market and more cross-border traveling of these cuisines have also contributed to the demand for trained chefs.

Culinary Art Jobs in India

Today culinary professionals can find jobs in hotels and restaurant catering departments. In fact, there are plenty of opportunities for these professionals in both private and public sectors as well as there are plenty of chef jobs abroad.

Here are a few of the avenues open for chef jobs in India:

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Food Manufacturing
  • Hotels
  • Food Processing companies
  • Airlines
  • Restaurants
  • Cruise liners
  • Catering in confectionaries
  • Corporate catering
  • Cloud Kitchens

Culinary Professionals can also start their own business by providing catering services to schools, colleges, and hospitals. You can also get government chef jobs.

How much does the Chef earn?

The salary and another reimbursement of chefs depend on their experience, specialization, location, and skills they possess. The culinary art salary at the junior level is Rs1,80,000 to Rs 3,00,000 per annum. The mid-level chef earns about Rs 6,0000 to Rs 9,00,00 per annum.The chef at the senior level earn about Rs 12,000,000 to Rs 24,000,000 per annum.

Top Recruiting Companies for Chef

Here are a few of the top recruiting companies where chefs can show their skills.

  • Oberoi Hotels
  • ITC Group
  • Taj Hotels
  • Radisson Blu Hotel
  • Sheraton Group of Hotels
  • Holiday Inn
  • Leela Palace
  • The Lalit

There is no doubt that the Indian catering industry is changing at a rapid pace. The Industry has been rethinking every aspect from farm to fork to bring the right kind of meaning to its customers.


In earlier days working as a chef was not considered to be a job attached with prestige and pride. It has only a few takers and also has limited scope in a third-world country like India. But today working as a chef is considered a glamorous job with many chefs making a reputation as that of celebrities and stars. Chef is now considered a niche job and those working in five-star hotels and clubs are a coveted lot. 


Library Science 2021– Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

Almost all of us have been to libraries in our school and college days to educate ourselves but most of us have not been aware of the science of management behind it known as Library Science.

What is Library Science?

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

Library Science is the study of practices and tools of management, information technology, and education related to libraries. To put it in simple words, Library Science is the art of organizing, maintaining, and storage of books in a library.

If you think you are a person capable of organizing, have good interpersonal skills, and have an interest in knowledge and information, then you are best suited to work in a library. Of course, you have to hone these skills further. 

A Librarian is a person who has been trained in the field of Library Science and is responsible for running library services in public libraries, colleges, universities, and schools.

Today librarians are also called “Information Managers” or “Information Scientists”.

With the rising number of education and research institutes, the importance of libraries is growing day by day. Thus there is an opportunity for a lucrative and exciting career for those professionals who are competent to administer and run a library.

Types of Libraries

There are four major types of libraries

  • Academic Libraries

These Libraries serve schools and colleges

  • Public Libraries

These Libraries serve towns and cities of every kind.

  • School Libraries

School libraries serve school children in school

  • Special Libraries

Special Libraries are those libraries that serve in special places such as hospitals, corporations, museums, the military, private businesses, and the government.

A Brief History of Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

As per the historical records, the world’s first librarian was Zenoditus of Ephesus from the end of Ptolemy 1 reign.

Martin Schrettinger of Germany wrote about library science from 1808 to 1829.

Thomas Jefferson devised a classification system inspired by the Baconian Method, which grouped books subject-wise instead of alphabetically. The Jefferson collection provided the start of the Library of Congress.

The first American school of librarianship under the leadership of Melvil Dewey was opened at Columbia University. He was noted for his 1876 decimal classification.

S.R.Ranganathan wrote and published his book “The Five Laws of Library Science in 1931 where he conceived the five laws of library science.

Lee Pierce Butler of the United States devised a new approach by advocating research using quantitative methods and ideas in social sciences. The aim was to use library professionals to address society’s information needs.

William Stetson Merrill released his book “A Code of Classifier ” from1914 to 1949, which provided a more pragmatic approach and in-depth knowledge about each field of study related to the system of classification.

The Digital Stage of the twenty-first century has transformed the way of accessing and retrieving information. The library has now become a part of a complex and dynamic educational, recreational, and information infrastructure. The use of computers and mobile devices with wireless high-speed networking has a profound impact on information science and information services.

The Library science has maintained its mission of access equity and community space throughout its evolution. It has developed new means for information retrieval called information literacy skills. All catalogs, databases, and a growing number of books are now available on the internet.

Library Science in India

The Trivandrum Public Library established in 1829 is the first state central library in India.

The father of Library Science in India was Dhiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan(1892-1972) from Bangalore, Mysore. His Five laws of Library Science in 1931 had a worldwide influence on the teaching and practice of library science.

Sayyaji Rao Gaekwad the Maharaja of the erstwhile princely state of Baroda is credited with the starting of library science education in India at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Harinath De from 1877 to 1911 was the first Indian librarian of the National Library of India, then known as Imperial Library. He was an Indian historian, scholar, and polyglot.

How to Start a Career in Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education


A career in Library Science includes organizing and maintaining books, magazines, and journals in libraries.

Professionals in Library science may benefit by earning certifications and taking online courses. This will help them to advance in their career path. Professional certification in library science shows experience in library science and enhances the existing skills.

The library science professionals demonstrate their understanding and adherence to the latest technologies, resources, and practices in library science by earning a Certification in Library Science.

The Job Profile for library science includes the ability to categorize the information required by the people visiting the libraries and having the knowledge of Information systems management, classification/cataloging systems, bibliography, documentation, preservation, and conservation of manuscript, collection management, information system and technology, research methodology, computer applications, reference statistics and management, information processing, archives management, indexing, library planning, etc.

Eligibility for Library Science courses

To be eligible for a Bachelor’s course in Library Science you must have passed the Higher Secondary School Certificate(10+2)examination with science as the main subject(Physics, Chemistry, Maths, and Biology).

To be eligible for a Master’s degree in Library Science, you must have a bachelor’s degree in Science subject.

Certificate and Diploma Courses in Library Science

Here are some of the courses that you can pursue a career in Library Science. You may also do a Library Science degree online that may or may not be recognized by the Government. Institutes like IGNOU offer library science courses through distance learning.

Diploma Courses in Library Science

  • Certificate in Library Science
  • Certificate in Library and Information Science
  • Diploma in Library and Information Science
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Library Automation and Networking.

Bachelor Courses in Library Science

  • Bachelor in Library Science(B.Lib.)
  • Bachelor of Library and Information Science(B.Li Sc.)

Master Course in Library Science

  • Master in Library Science
  • Master in Library and Information Science(MLIS)

Doctoral Courses in Library Science

  • Ph.D. in Library and Information Science
  • M. Phil in Library and Information Science

What is B.Lib.Sc. (Bachelor of Library Science)?

B.Lib.Sc.(Bachelor of Library Science) is a postgraduate academic degree course that is designed to give students an understanding of Library science, its basic principles, laws, and its impact on society. The course teaches students how to manage books and other materials in a library.

Blis course is basically a one-year duration course. Admission to B.Lib.Sc. is provided on the basis of both merit and an entrance exam depending on the policy of the institution where you want to take the admission.

Skills required for BLibSc

Students who have a passion for reading and maintaining books are regarded as suitable for a career in Library Science. Here are a few of the skills that a candidate must possess if he wants to pursue a career in Library Science.

  • Analytical thinking to take administrative decisions.
  • Leadership to maintain effective communication and supervise library staff.
  • Good communication skills to organize Job duties
  • Problem-solving skills 
  • Creativity to learn digital skills.
  • Research skills to research a topic in detail.

What is the Course Curriculum in BLibSc?

Here are a few of the subjects taught in BLib.Sc. course

  • Library Information & Society
  • Library Classification(Practical)
  • Library Cataloguing(Practical)
  • Information sources & Services
  • Project work literature and field study
  • Library classification(Theory)
  • Library Cataloguing(Theory)
  • Library Management & Information centers
  • Library Information Technology

Top Colleges in Bachelor in Library Science(B.Lib.Sc)

Here are a few of the top colleges offering Library Science degrees in India.

  • Jai Hind College

Jai Hind College is located in Churchgate, Mumbai. The total course fee is Rs 47.74 thousand with 720 seats.

  • Delhi Technological University

Delhi Technological University is located in East Delhi. The total course fee is Rs2.97 lacs with 151 seats.

  • Delhi School of Economics

Delhi School of Economics is located in North Campus, Delhi. The total course fees is from Rs12K to Rs29K with 290 seats.

  • Symbiosis Colleges of Arts& Commerce

Symbiosis Colleges of Arts& Commerce is located in Senapati Bapat Road, Pune. The total course fees is Rs 45K

  • Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai

IIT Bombay is located in Powai, Mumbai. The total course fee is Rs8.33 lacs with 32 seats.

  • NDA –  National Defence College

NDA is located in Pune. The total course fee is Rs 1.67 lacs.

Other than the above institutes here are a few more colleges and Universities that offer Library science degrees.

  • Alagappa University, Karaikudi
  • Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
  • Allahabad University
  • Annamalai University, Annamalainagar
  • Awadhesh Pratap Singh University, Rewa
  • Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow
  • Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
  • Bundelkhand University, Jhansi
  • Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore
  • Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar University, Agra
  • Dr. Harisingh Gour Viswavidyalaya, Sagar
  • Gulbarga University, Gulbarga
  • Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur
  • Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar
  • Dr. Harisingh Gour University, Sagar
  • HNB Garhwal University Srinagar – Garhwal
  • Jadavpur University, Calcutta
  • Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
  • Jiwaji University, Gwalior
  • Karnatak University, Dharwad
  • Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
  • Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra
  • Nagpur University, Nagpur
  • North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong
  • Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur
  • Panjab University, Chandigarh
  • Patna University, Patna
  • Punjabi University, Patiala
  • Rani Durgavati Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur
  • Sambalpur University, Sambalpur
  • SNDT Womens’ University, Mumbai
  • University of Delhi, Delhi
  • University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad
  • The University of Jammu, Jammu (Tawi)
  • University of Kashmir, Srinagar
  • University of Lucknow, Lucknow
  • University of Madras, Chennai
  • University of Mysore, Mysore
  • University of Pune, Pune
  • University of Rajasthan, Jaipur
  • Vikram University, Ujjain
  • Rajarshi Tandon Open University, Allahabad (Distance Education)
  • Indira Gandhi National Open University,(IGNOU), New Delhi (Distance Education)

The Scope of Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

By compiling, preserving, and disseminating information, Library Professionals are known to provide valuable services to society. You can easily find a job in schools and colleges after completing your course. You can also work in government and corporate settings. You can work in public and private libraries. With the growth of the Internet, there has been an increase in demand for library professionals with knowledge in Library Science and computer skills.

Most of the job profiles in library science focus on one of the following:

  • User Services

These services connect people to the information they need.

  • Technical Services

These services include ordering, cataloging, and preparing materials.

  • Computer Services

Library professionals working in computer services maintain databases, do software programming and web page design.

  • Administrative Services

The Library professionals manage the library and services, negotiate contracts with vendors, supervise library staff, and prepare budgets.

After getting a degree in B.Lib.Sc you can work as a High school teacher, Middle school teacher, and special education teacher. The average salary you can get is around 60,000 US$ per annum.

After getting a master’s degree in Library science, you can work as a librarian in a library with an earning potential of 60,000,$US per annum. You can work as an elementary, middle, or High school principal with an earning potential of 96,000 UD$. You can work as a Postsecondary Education administrator in colleges and Universities Instructional coordinator in schools and colleges, and even as School and career counselor to help students to select appropriate careers.

In case you have earned a Doctorate in Library Science, there is a job opportunity for you as a Post-secondary school teacher, Survey researcher, computer and Information research scientist.

The Scope of Library Science In India

In India also there are ample options for students with a degree in Library Science. Today librarians are not only Information providers but they also see the information in the library is systematically organized and constantly update

Today Librarians are in high demand in both government and private sectors in India. They can work as a research assistant to professors, or in publishing companies in preparing bibliographies and catalogs. The students can go for higher studies in this field. The more the number of schools and colleges, the greater the demand for the students of Library Science.

Here is the list of recruiters who can offer you a job as a librarian in their institute.

  • Libraries
  • Universities
  • Colleges
  • Corporate Training Centres
  • Research Institutions
  • Media Organizations
  • Consulting Firms
  • Foreign Embassies
  • Museums
  • Photo/film libraries.

Librarians get an excellent salary package in both the private and government sectors.

In India, the average salary of a Librarian is between Rs 2 to 4 lacs per annum while in the United States you can expect to earn an average salary of $48,000 per annum.

However, the salaries vary depending upon various factors like working area, education, experience and so on. With a master’s degree and good experience, one can get a very good salary package.

The average salary of an assistant librarian is Rs1.5 lac per annum in India. The average salary of a senior librarian is about Rs 3.6 lacs per annum. An Information Architect can earn from Rs 10 to 20 lacs per annum. An information analyst can earn from 1.5 to 20 lacs per annum and a technical writer from 2 to 10 lacs per annum.

Job Profiles for students in Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

Here are a few of the Library Science Jobs For a B.Lib.Sc. graduate in both private and public sectors.

  • Archivist

All assembling, cataloging, and managing valuable collections of historical information is done by an Archivist.

  • Consultant

A library consultant provides consultation and problem-solving assistance to administrators that relate to library plans, management, governance, funding, etc. 

  • Cataloguer

A Cataloguer is responsible for managing the catalog of different materials at a library. The Cataloguer prepares bibliographic and item records for journals, monographs, and other library material. 

  • Curator

All assembling, classifying, managing, and presentation of books in the library are done by the Curator.

  • Deputy Librarian

The Deputy Librarian works with the Assistant librarian and library assistant to report on library improvement, development, and budgeting issues.

  • Library Assistant

The Library Assistant is responsible for compiling records, sorts and shelves of the books, and issues and receives library materials like pictures, cards, and slides.

  • Library Director 

The library director’s responsibility is to check books in and out for customers, oversee employees and staff members. He ensures the smooth running of the day-to-day operations of the library.

  • Indexer

The task of an Indexer is to review documents. He compiles Indexes to make information searches much easier.

  •  Electronic Resources Librarian

An electronic Resources Librarian ensures the smooth running of electronic resources of a library including Databases, ebooks, streaming videos, etc. 

  • Information Architect

An Information Architect is responsible to ensure the user-friendly design of websites and other applications in a library. 

  • Library Science Teacher

The task of a Library Science teacher is to prepare and deliver different topics related to Library Science to undergraduate and graduate students.

  • Law Librarians

A Law Librarian works for law school or law firms. He is responsible for managing different library operations, helping in research, budget monitoring, etc.

The Future of Library Science

Library Science 2021-- Dynamic Career to Inspire Education

In 2008,  Library Science was ranked as the “Best career” for students. The employment of librarians and library media specialists is projected to grow by 9% from 2020 to 2030.

The bureau of labor statistics projects a growth of 5% between 2019 and 2029 for librarians.

As India is moving towards an Information and knowledge-based society with the proliferation of learning and research institutes the demand and importance of Library Science are bound to grow in the years to come.